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  • Review of the genus Dinetus Panzer, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae: Dinetinae) with descriptions of new subgenera and new species

    Olszewski, Piotr; Notton, David Geoffrey; Kitching, I (2020-11-11)
    One new species of Dinetus is described and illustrated: D. hameri Notton sp.n. from the United Arab Emirates; D. politus stat. rev. is raised in rank to a full species (formerly a subspecies of D. cereolus). Two new subgenera are described: Dentidinetus Olszewski, Notton & Kitching subg.n. and Venustidinetus Olszewski, Notton & Kitching subg.n. and all known species are assigned to subgenera. An illustrated key for identification of world Dinetus species is given and a phylogenetic analysis of Dinetus based on morphological characters is presented.
  • What's in a name? Nomenclature for colour aberrations in birds reviewed

    van Grouw, Hein (British Ornithologists' Club, 2021-09-10)
    A review is presented of the seven commonest types of colour aberrations in birds together with suggestions for a standardised universal nomenclature to identify and distinguish these aberrations. These aberrations are: Leucism (congenital absence of melanin-producing cells), Progressive Greying (progressive loss of melanin-producing cells), Albino (total absence of melanin due to lack of the key enzyme), Brown (incompletely coloured melanin), Ino (even less completely coloured melanin), Dilution (altered deposition of melanin) and Melanism (altered distribution of melanin). It is proposed that these terms should be based not only on the resulting plumage but also should distinguish the underlying processes resulting in the aberrant pigmentation. By reviewing previously used terms for colour aberrations, and cross-referencing these with my proposed terminology, errors in earlier names are pointed out, and resulting in a more comprehensive nomenclature for colour aberrations found in wild birds.
  • Revision of the “ Chloritis delibrata (Benson, 1836)” group (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Camaenidae)

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Ablett, J; Szabó, Márton; Neubert, Eike (Pensoft Publishers, 2022-02-15)
    Chloritis delibrata (Benson, 1836), known from northeastern India, was believed to have three varietal forms, sometimes mentioned as subspecies: C. delibrata var. khasiensis (Nevill, 1877) and C. delibrata var. fasciata (Godwin-Austen, 1875) from the Khasi Hills, India, and C. delibrata var. procumbens (Gould, 1844) from Dawei in Myanmar. The reproductive anatomy of the latter form is known and does not match with those of any continental camaenid genera, but does with that of the newly examined Chloritis platytropis Möllendorff, 1894 from Thailand. The latter species is conchologically similar to Bouchetcamaena huberi Thach, 2018 (synonym of Helix fouresi Morlet, 1886), which is the type species of the genus Bouchetcamaena Thach, 2018. Thus, Bouchetcamaena can provisionally host the entire Chloritis delibrata -group with the exception of var. fasciata, which is transferred to Burmochloritis Godwin-Austen, 1920 due to the multiple reddish bands on its shell. The examination of shells deposited in the Natural History Museum, London revealed that seven morphologically distinguishable forms are present, which are accepted here as representing distinct species. Four new species are described from India: Bouchetcamaena foveata Páll-Gergely sp. nov., B. fusca Páll-Gergely sp. nov., B. raripila Páll-Gergely sp. nov., and B. subdelibrata Páll-Gergely sp. nov.
  • Cambrian edrioasteroid reveals new mechanism for secondary reduction of the skeleton in echinoderms

    Zamora, Samuel; Rahman, Imran; Sumrall, Colin D; Gibson, Adam P; Thompson, Jeffrey R (The Royal Society, 2022-03-09)
    Echinoderms are characterized by a distinctive high-magnesium calcite endoskeleton as adults, but elements of this have been drastically reduced in some groups. Herein, we describe a new pentaradial echinoderm, Yorkicystis haefneri n. gen. n. sp., which provides, to our knowledge, the oldest evidence of secondary non-mineralization of the echinoderm skeleton. This material was collected from the Cambrian Kinzers Formation in York (Pennsylvania, USA) and is dated as ca 510 Ma. Detailed morphological observations demonstrate that the ambulacra (i.e. axial region) are composed of flooring and cover plates, but the rest of the body (i.e. extraxial region) is preserved as a dark film and lacks any evidence of skeletal plating. Moreover, X-ray fluorescence analysis reveals that the axial region is elevated in iron. Based on our morphological and chemical data and on taphonomic comparisons with other fossils from the Kinzers Formation, we infer that the axial region was originally calcified, while the extraxial region was non-mineralized. Phylogenetic analyses recover Yorkicystis as an edrioasteroid, indicating that this partial absence of skeleton resulted from a secondary reduction. We hypothesize that skeletal reduction resulted from lack of expression of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network in the extraxial body wall during development. Secondary reduction of the skeleton in Yorkicystis might have allowed for greater flexibility of the body wall.
  • Revision of the Tomoderinae (Coleoptera: Anthicidae). Part III. New species and records of Macrotomoderus Pic, 1901 from China and a key to the Palaearctic species

    Telnov, Dmitry (Consortium of European Natural History Museums, 2022-02-24)
    Descriptions of the following 23 species of Macrotomoderus Pic, 1901 new to science, from continental China, are provided as an addition to the recently published review of the genus from China and Taiwan (Telnov 2018): M. angelinii, M. belousovi, M. bicrispus, M. boops, M. bordonii, M. dali, M. daxiangling, M. femoridens, M. hajeki, M. hartmanni, M. hengduan, M. imitator, M. kabaki, M. korolevi, M. lapidarius, M. muli, M. palaung, M. similis, M. tenuis, M. transitans, M. truncatulus, M. usitatus, and M. wudu spp. nov. Additional records are provided for some poorly known species. The identification key to the species of Macrotomoderus from China, the Japanese Archipelago, and Taiwan is herewith significantly supplemented and updated. Biogeographical peculiarities and altitudinal gradient of Macrotomoderus distribution in continental China are briefly discussed.
  • A diversification relay race from Caribbean-Mesoamerica to the Andes: historical biogeography of Xylophanes hawkmoths

    Li, Xuankun; Hamilton, Chris A; St Laurent, Ryan; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Markee, Amanda; HAXAIRE, Jean; ROUGERIE, Rodolphe; Kitching, I; Kawahara, Akito Y (The Royal Society, 2022-02-09)
    The regions of the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica are both hypothesized to be the cradle for many Neotropical lineages, but few studies have fully investigated the dynamics and interactions between Neotropical bioregions. The New World hawkmoth genus Xylophanes is the most taxonomically diverse genus in the Sphingidae, with the highest endemism and richness in the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica. We integrated phylogenomic and DNA barcode data and generated the first time-calibrated tree for this genus, covering 93.8% of the species diversity. We used event-based likelihood ancestral area estimation and biogeographic stochastic mapping to examine the speciation and dispersal dynamics of Xylophanes across bioregions. We also used trait-dependent diversification models to compare speciation and extinction rates of lineages associated with different bioregions. Our results indicate that Xylophanes originated in Caribbean-Mesoamerica in the Late Miocene, and immediately diverged into five major clades. The current species diversity and distribution of Xylophanes can be explained by two consecutive phases. In the first phase, the highest Xylophanes speciation and emigration rates occurred in the Caribbean-Mesoamerica, and the highest immigration rates occurred in the Andes, whereas in the second phase the highest immigration rates were found in Amazonia, and the Andes had the highest speciation and emigration rates.
  • Hidden Phylogenomic Signal Helps Elucidate Arsenurine Silkmoth Phylogeny and the Evolution of Body Size and Wing Shape Trade-Offs

    Hamilton, Chris A; Winiger, Nathalie; Rubin, Juliette J; Breinholt, Jesse; ROUGERIE, Rodolphe; Kitching, I; Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-11-13)
    One of the key objectives in biological research is understanding how evolutionary processes have produced Earth’s diversity. A critical step toward revealing these processes is an investigation of evolutionary tradeoffs—that is, the opposing pressures of multiple selective forces. For millennia, nocturnal moths have had to balance successful flight, as they search for mates or host plants, with evading bat predators. However, the potential for evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape and body size are poorly understood. In this study, we used phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics to examine the evolution of wing shape in the wild silkmoth subfamily Arsenurinae (Saturniidae) and evaluate potential evolutionary relationships between body size and wing shape. The phylogeny was inferred based on 782 loci from target capture data of 42 arsenurine species representing all 10 recognized genera. After detecting in our data one of the most vexing problems in phylogenetic inference—a region of a tree that possesses short branches and no “support” for relationships (i.e., a polytomy), we looked for hidden phylogenomic signal (i.e., inspecting differing phylogenetic inferences, alternative support values, quartets, and phylogenetic networks) to better illuminate the most probable generic relationships within the subfamily. We found there are putative evolutionary trade-offs between wing shape, body size, and the interaction of fore- and hindwing (HW) shape. Namely, body size tends to decrease with increasing HW length but increases as forewing (FW) shape becomes more complex. Additionally, the type of HW (i.e., tail or no tail) a lineage possesses has a significant effect on the complexity of FW shape. We outline possible selective forces driving the complex HW shapes that make Arsenurinae, and silkmoths as a whole, so charismatic. [Anchored hybrid enrichment; Arsenurinae; geometric morphometrics; Lepidoptera; phylogenomics; Saturniidae.]
  • The first fossil Coleoptera record from the Volyn Region, Ukraine, with description of a new Glesoconomorphus (Coleoptera, Mycteridae) in syninclusion with Winterschmidtiidae (Acari) and a key to species

    Telnov, Dmitry; Perkovsky, Evgeny E; Vasilenko, Dmitry V; Yamamoto, Shûhei (Pensoft Publishers, 2021-11-08)
    Glesoconomorphus ekaterinae sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Mycteridae), representing the first ever fossil species of Coleoptera from the Volyn Region of Ukraine and the first mycterid from late Eocene Rovno amber, is described and illustrated. A key to species of the fossil mycterid genus Glesoconomorphus Alekseev, Pollock & Bukejs, 2019 is presented. The systematic position of Glesoconomorphus within Eurypinae J. Thomson, 1860 is briefly discussed. The oldest finding of phoretic Winterschmidtiidae Oudemans, 1923 mites, found on the type specimen of the new beetle species, is reported.
  • Correlative tomography of an exceptionally preserved Jurassic ammonite implies hyponome-propelled swimming

    Cherns, Lesley; Spencer, Alan RT; Rahman, Imran; Garwood, Russell J; Reedman, Christopher; Burca, Genoveva; Turner, Martin J; Hollingworth, Neville TJ; Hilton, Jason (Geological Society of America, 2021-12-07)
    The extreme rarity of soft-tissue preservation in ammonoids has meant there are open questions regarding fundamental aspects of their biology. We report an exceptionally preserved Middle Jurassic ammonite with unrivaled information on soft-body organization interpreted through correlative neutron and X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional imaging of muscles and organs of the body mass for the first time in this iconic fossil group provides key insights into functional morphology. We show that paired dorsal muscles withdrew the body into the shell, rather than acting with the funnel controlling propulsion as in Nautilus. This suggests a mobile, retractable body as a defense strategy and necessitates a distinct swimming mechanism of hyponome propulsion, a trait that we infer evolved early in the ammonoid-coleoid lineage.
  • Six new species of Handaoia Seyrig, 1952 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Phygadeuontinae): the first to be described from the New World

    Bordera, Santiago; Broad, G (Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, 2021-06-30)
    Handaoia Seyrig, 1952 is a small genus of Phygadeuontinae currently represented by eleven described species from Madagascar, Tanzania and Europe, and can be recognized by the combination of the distally expanded and ventrally flattened antennal flagellum, complete posterior transverse carina of the mesosternum, isolated ‘pit’ (episternal scrobe) in the mesopleuron, and a single bulla in fore wing vein 2m-cu. Most species have a distinctive combined area basalis and area superomedia on the propodeum. The following six new species from Central and South America are described and illustrated: H. cuscoensis Bordera sp. nov. from Peru, H. fritzi sp. nov. from Brazil, H. mercedensis Bordera sp. nov. from Peru, H. plaumanni sp. nov. from Brazil, H. ruizcancinoi Bordera sp. nov. from Mexico, and H. urceus sp. nov. from Brazil. A key to the New World species is provided.
  • The genus Orionis Shaw (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae) in the Old World

    Broad, G; Stigenberg, Julia (Pensoft Publishers, 2021-12-30)
    The euphorine braconid genus Orionis Shaw, 1987 is found to be more diverse in the Old World than had previously been recognised. Orionis was regarded previously as largely Neotropical, with one Oriental species (Orionis orientalis Shimbori & Shaw, 2016) known from Thailand, but we recognise an additional three species from the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Three species of Euphorinae are transferred to Orionis Shaw, 1987 and are new combinations: Orionis coxator (Belokobylskij, 1995), comb. nov., Orionis erratus (Chen & van Achterberg, 1997), comb. nov., and Orionis flavifacies (Belokobylskij, 2000), comb. nov. Previously known from the Far Eastern Palaearctic, O. coxator has surprisingly been found in Europe, in Belgium, England and the Netherlands. The inclusion of these species in Orionis whereas most previous species have been described from the Neotropics, is justified by Bayesian analysis of the D2 region of 28S, Cytochrome Oxidase I barcode sequences, and morphology.
  • A global food plant dataset for wild silkmoths and hawkmoths and its use in documenting polyphagy of their caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea: Saturniidae, Sphingidae)

    Ballesteros Mejia, Liliana; Arnal, Pierre; Hallwachs, Winnie; HAXAIRE, Jean; Janzen, Daniel; Kitching, I; ROUGERIE, Rodolphe (Pensoft Publishers, 2020-12-10)
    Herbivorous insects represent a major fraction of global biodiversity and the relationships they have established with their food plants range from strict specialists to broad generalists. Our knowledge of these relationships is of primary importance to basic (e.g. the study of insect ecology and evolution) and applied biology (e.g. monitoring of pest or invasive species) and yet remains very fragmentary and understudied. In Lepidoptera, caterpillars of families Saturniidae and Sphingidae are rather well known and considered to have adopted contrasting preferences in their use of food plants. The former are regarded as being rather generalist feeders, whereas the latter are more specialist. To assemble and synthesise the vast amount of existing data on food plants of Lepidoptera families Saturniidae and Sphingidae, we combined three major existing databases to produce a dataset collating more than 26,000 records for 1256 species (25% of all species) in 121 (67%) and 167 (81%) genera of Saturniidae and Sphingidae, respectively. This dataset is used here to document the level of polyphagy of each of these genera using summary statistics, as well as the calculation of a polyphagy score derived from the analysis of Phylogenetic Diversity of the food plants used by the species in each genus.
  • Pre‐ and postzygotic mechanisms preventing hybridization in co‐occurring species of the Impatiens purpureoviolacea complex

    Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Jandová, Michaela; Líblová, Zuzana; Janssens, Steven B; Dostálek, Tomáš; Holstein, Norbert; Fischer, Eberhard (Wiley, 2021-11-24)
    In the species-rich genus Impatiens, few natural hybrids are known, even though closely related species often occur sympatrically. In this study, we aim to bridge the gap between micro- and macro-evolution to disentangle pre- and postzygotic mechanisms that may prevent hybridization in the Impatiens purpureoviolacea complex from Central Africa. We analyzed habitat types, species distribution, pollination syndromes, pollinator dependency, genome sizes, and chromosome numbers of seven out of the ten species of the complex as well as of one natural hybrid and reconstructed the ancestral chromosome numbers of the complex. Several species of the complex occur in sympatry or geographically very close to each other. All of them are characterized by pre- and/or postzygotic mechanisms potentially preventing hybridization. We found four independent polyploidization events within the complex. The only known natural hybrid always appears as single individual and is self-fertile. But the plants resulting from self-pollinated seeds often die shortly after first flowering. These results indicate that the investigated mechanisms in combination may effectively but not absolutely prevent hybridization in Impatiens and probably occur in other genera with sympatric species as well.
  • Evolution of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) in the Albertine Rift – The endemic Impatiens purpureoviolacea complex consists of ten species

    Fischer, Eberhard; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Holstein, Norbert; Janssens, Steven B (Wiley, 2021-09-06)
    The Albertine Rift harbours a highly diverse flora with numerous endemic species. An important component of the forestunderstorey is the herbaceous genusImpatiens. Fieldwork in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda as well asmorphological studies indicated that the Albertine Rift endemicImpatiens purpureoviolacearepresents a species complex. We ana-lyzed the hidden diversity of the complex using morphological and molecular data supplemented by herbarium studies. We found thattheImpatiens purpureoviolaceacomplex can be divided into morphologically and phylogenetically well characterized clades contain-ing ten species and a natural hybrid. We describe all of these species, provide a species key and analyze their evolutionary history.BesideImpatiens purpureoviolaceaandI. gesneroidea, the already describedI. urundiensisis resurrected from synonymy. Two va-rieties,Impatiens purpureoviolaceavar.longicalcarataandI. gesneroideavar.superglabraare raised to species status, and five newspecies (Impatiens elwiraurzulae,I. lotteri,I. ludewigii,I. lutzmannii,I. versicolor) and a new natural hybrid (I. ×troupinii) are de-scribed. Within the mostly insect-pollinated species of the clade, two bird-pollinated species (Impatiens gesneroidea,I. super-glabra) evolved independently. The clade split from its sister taxon in the Pliocene and started diversifying during the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition in parallel to an increased mountain uplifting and volcanic activity in the Albertine Rift. It further diversifiedduring the Pleistocene, likely due to the changes in forest cover and connectivity induced by climatic fluctuations.
  • (2664) Proposal to conserve the name Kissenia against Cnidone (Loasaceae)

    Holstein, Norbert; Acuña, Rafael; Weigend, Maximilian (Wiley, 2018-12-01)
    [No abstract]
  • How has the environment shaped geographical patterns of insect body sizes? A test of hypotheses using sphingid moths

    Beerli, Nicolas; Bärtschi, Florian; Ballesteros‐Mejia, Liliana; Kitching, I; Beck, Jan (Wiley, 2019-08)
    Aim: We mapped the geographical pattern of body sizes in sphingid moths and investigated latitudinal clines. We tested hypotheses concerning their possible environmental control, that is, effects of temperature (negative: temperature size rule or Bergmann's rule; positive: converse Bergmann rule), food availability, robustness to starvation during extreme weather and seasonality. Location: Old World and Australia/Pacific region. Methods: Body size data of 950 sphingid species were compiled and related to their distribution maps. Focusing on body length, we mapped the median and maximum size of all species occurring in 100 km grid cells. In a comparative approach, we tested the predictions from explanatory hypotheses by correlating species' size to the average environmental conditions encountered throughout their range, under univariate and multivariate models. We accounted for phylogeny by stepwise inclusion of phylogenetically informed taxonomic classifications into hierarchical random‐intercept mixed models. Results: Median body sizes showed a distinctive geographical pattern, with large species in the Middle East and the Asian tropics, and smaller species in temperate regions and the Afrotropics. Absolute latitude explained very little body size variation, but there was a latitudinal cline of maximum size. Species' median size was correlated with net primary productivity, supporting the food availability hypothesis, whereas support for other hypotheses was weak. Environmental correlations contributed much less (i.e. <10%) to explaining overall size variation than phylogeny (inclusion of which led to models explaining >70% of variability). Main conclusion: The intuitive impression of larger species in the tropics is shaped by larger size maxima. Median body sizes are only very weakly related to latitude. Most of the geographical variation in body size in sphingid moths is explained by their phylogenetic past. NPP and forest cover correlate positively with the body size, which supports the idea that food availability allowed the evolution of larger sizes.
  • How climatic variability is linked to the spatial distribution of range sizes: seasonality versus climate change velocity in sphingid moths

    Grünig, Marc; Beerli, Nicolas; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Kitching, I; Beck, Jan (Wiley, 2017-11)
    Aim: To map the spatial variation of range sizes within sphingid moths, and to test hypotheses on its environmental control. In particular, we investigate effects of climate change velocity since the Pleistocene and the mid-Holocene, temperature and precipitation seasonality, topography, Pleistocene ice cover, and available land area. Location: Old World and Australasia, excluding smaller islands. Methods: We used fine-grained range maps (based on expert-edited distribution modelling) for all 972 sphingid moth species in the research region and calculated, at a grain size of 100 km, the median of range sizes of all species that co-occur in a pixel. Climate, topography and Pleistocene ice cover data were taken from publicly available sources. We calculated climate change velocities (CCV) for the last 21ky as well as 6ky. We compared the effects of seasonality and CCV on median range sizes with spatially explicit models while accounting for effects of elevation range, glaciation history and available land area. Results: Range sizes show a clear spatial pattern, with highest median values in deserts and arctic regions and lowest values in isolated tropical regions. Range sizes were only weakly related to absolute latitude (predicted by Rapoport’s effect), but there was a strong north-south pattern of range size decline. Temperature seasonality emerged as the strongest environmental correlate of median range size, in univariate as well as multivariate models, whereas effects of CCV were weak and unstable for both time periods. These results were robust to variations in the parameters in alternative analyses, among them multivariate CCV. Main conclusions: Temperature seasonality is a strong correlate of spatial range size variation, while effects of longer-term temperature change, as captured by CCV, received much weaker support.
  • A Minimally Morphologically Destructive Approach for DNA Retrieval and Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Pinned Historic Dipteran Vector Species

    Korlević, Petra; McAlister, Erica; Mayho, Matthew; Makunin, Alex; Flicek, Paul; Lawniczak, Mara KN (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-10-01)
    Abstract: Museum collections contain enormous quantities of insect specimens collected over the past century, covering a period of increased and varied insecticide usage. These historic collections are therefore incredibly valuable as genomic snapshots of organisms before, during, and after exposure to novel selective pressures. However, these samples come with their own challenges compared with present-day collections, as they are fragile and retrievable DNA is low yield and fragmented. In this article, we tested several DNA extraction procedures across pinned historic Diptera specimens from four disease vector genera: Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Glossina. We identify an approach that minimizes morphological damage while maximizing DNA retrieval for Illumina library preparation and sequencing that can accommodate the fragmented and low yield nature of historic DNA. We identify several key points in retrieving sufficient DNA while keeping morphological damage to a minimum: an initial rehydration step, a short incubation without agitation in a modified low salt Proteinase K buffer (referred to as “lysis buffer C” throughout), and critical point drying of samples post-extraction to prevent tissue collapse caused by air drying. The suggested method presented here provides a solid foundation for exploring the genomes and morphology of historic Diptera collections.
  • Stability in Lepidoptera names is not served by reversal to gender agreement: a response to Wiemers et al. (2018)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J; Karsholt, Ole; Hausmann, Axel; Holloway, Jeremy D; Huemer, Peter; Kitching, I; Nuss, Matthias; Pohl, Gregory R; Rajaei, Hossein; Rennland, Erwin; et al. (Pensoft Publishers, 2019-06-26)
    None
  • Genome-wide SNP Data Reveal an Overestimation of Species Diversity in a Group of Hawkmoths

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Lee, Kyung Min; Kitching, I; Mutanen, Marko (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-05-29)
    Abstract: The interface between populations and evolving young species continues to generate much contemporary debate in systematics depending on the species concept(s) applied but which ultimately reduces to the fundamental question of “when do nondiscrete entities become distinct, mutually exclusive evolutionary units”? Species are perceived as critical biological entities, and the discovery and naming of new species is perceived by many authors as a major research aim for assessing current biodiversity before much of it becomes extinct. However, less attention is given to determining whether these names represent valid biological entities because this is perceived as both a laborious chore and an undesirable research outcome. The charismatic spurge hawkmoths (Hyles euphorbiae complex, HEC) offer an opportunity to study this less fashionable aspect of systematics. To elucidate this intriguing systematic challenge, we analyzed over 10,000 ddRAD single nucleotide polymorphisms from 62 individuals using coalescent-based and population genomic methodology. These genome-wide data reveal a clear overestimation of (sub)species-level diversity and demonstrate that the HEC taxonomy has been seriously oversplit. We conclude that only one valid species name should be retained for the entire HEC, namely Hyles euphorbiae, and we do not recognize any formal subspecies or other taxonomic subdivisions within it. Although the adoption of genetic tools has frequently revealed morphologically cryptic diversity, the converse, taxonomic oversplitting of species, is generally (and wrongly in our opinion) accepted as rare. Furthermore, taxonomic oversplitting is most likely to have taken place in intensively studied popular and charismatic organisms such as the HEC.

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