• The crystal chemistry of elsmoreite from the Hemerdon (Drakelands) mine, UK: hydrokenoelsmoreite-3C and hydrokenoelsmoreite-6R

      Mills, SJ; Christy, AG; Rumsey, MS; Spratt, J (Cambridge University Press, 2016-12-01)
      A crystallographic and chemical study of two 'elsmoreite' samples (previously described as 'ferritungstite') from the Hemerdon mine (now known as the Drakelands mine), Devon, United Kingdom has shown them to be two different polytypes of hydrokenoelsmoreite. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-3C(HKE-3C) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameter a = 10.3065(3) Å. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-6R (HKE-6R) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameters a = 7.2882(2) Å and c = 35.7056(14)Å. Chemical analyses showed that both polytypes have Na and Fe/Al substitution giving the formulae: (Na0.28Ca0.04K0.02(H2O)0.20⁏1.46)∑2.00(W1.47Fe3+ 0.32Al0.21As5+ 0.01)∑2.00[O4.79(OH)1.21]∑6.00·(H2O)(3C) and (Na0.24Ca0.04K0.03(H2O)0.63⁏1.06)∑2.00(W1.42Fe3+ 0.49Al0.08As5+ 0.01)∑2.00[O4.65(OH)1.35]∑6.00·(H2O)(6R). The doubling of the unit cell in the 6R phase is due to ordering of Na and ( ,H2O) in the A site; no long-range ordering is observed between W and Fe/Al in the B site.
    • The crystal structure of uytenbogaardtite, Ag3AuS2, and its relationships with gold and silver sulfides-selenides

      Bindi, L; Stanley, Christopher; Seryotkin, YV; Bakakin, VR; Pal'yanova, GA; Kokh, KA (2016-10)
    • Hansblockite, (Cu,Hg)(Bi,Pb)Se2, the monoclinic polymorph of grundmannite: a new mineral from the Se mineralization at El Dragón (Bolivia)

      Foerster, HJ; Bindi, L; Stanley, Christopher; Grundmann, G (Cambridge University Press, 2017-06)
      Hansblockite, ideally (Cu,Hg)(Bi,Pb)Se2, is a new selenide from the El Dragón mine, Bolivia. It typically occurs in thin subparallel plates intergrown with two unnamed Cu–Hg–Pb–Bi–Se species, clausthalite, Corich penroseite and petrovicite.It also forms subhedral to anhedral grains up to 150 μm long and 50 μm wide. Hansblockite is non-fluorescent, black and opaque with a metallic lustre and black streak. It is brittle, with an irregular fracture and no obvious parting and cleavage. The VHN20 values range from37 to 50 (mean 42) kg mm–2 (Mohs hardness 2–2½). In plane-polarized incident light, hansblockite is cream to light grey in colour, weakly bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from greyish cream to cream. Under crossed polars, hansblockite is weakly anisotropic withkhaki to pale blue rotation tints. The reflectance values in air for the Commission on Ore Mineralogy (COM) standard wavelengths are: 47.3–48.1 (470 nm), 47.4–49.9 (546 nm), 47.1–49.0 (589 nm) and 46.6–48.5 (650 nm). The mean composition is Cu 9.31, Ag 0.73, Hg 11.43,Pb 3.55, Ni 0.17, Co 0.03, Bi 31.17, Se 34.00, total 100.39 wt.%. The mean empirical formula (based on 4 apfu) is (Cu0.68Hg0.27Ag0.03Ni0.01)∑=0.99(Bi0.69Pb0.31)∑=1.00Se2.01. The simplifiedformula is (Cu,Hg) (Bi,Pb)Se2. Hansblockite is monoclinic, space group P21/c, with a = 6.853(1), b = 7.635(1), c = 7.264(1) Å, β = 97.68(1)°, V = 376.66(9) Å3 and Z = 4. Density is 8.26 gcm–3. The five strongest powder X-ray diffraction lines [d in Å (I/I 0) (hkl)] are: 3.97 (90) (111), 3.100 (40) (121), 2.986 (100) (211), 2.808 (50) (112) and 2.620 (50) (022). Hansblockite represents the monoclinic polymorph ofgrundmannite, CuBiSe2, with Hg and Pb being essential in stabilizing the monoclinic structure via the coupled substitution Cu+ + Bi3+⇔ Hg2+ + Pb2+. The mineral name is in honour of Hans Block (1881–1953), in recognition of hisimportant role in boosting Bolivian ore mining.
    • Lead-antimony sulfosalts from Tuscany (Italy). XVII. Meerschautite, (Ag,Cu)5.5Pb42.4(Sb,As)45.1S112O0.8, a new expanded derivative of owyheeite from the Pollone mine, Valdicastello Carducci: occurrence and crystal structure

      Biagioni, Cristian; Moëlo, Yves; Orlandi, Paolo; Stanley, Christopher (Cambridge University Press, 2016-06-01)
      The new mineral species meerschautite, ideally (Ag,Cu)5.5Pb42.4(Sb,As)45.1S112O0.8, has been discovered in the baryte + pyrite ± (Pb-Zn-Ag) deposit of the Pollone mine, near Valdicastello Carducci, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy. It occurs as black prismatic crystals, striated along [100], up to 2 mm long and 0.5 mm thick, associated with baryte, boulangerite, pyrite, quartz and sphalerite. Meerschautite is opaque with a metallic lustre and shows a black streak. In reflected light, meerschautite is white in colour, weakly bireflectant and non pleochroic. With crossed polars, it is distinctly anisotropic with grey to dark grey rotation tints with brownish and greenish shades. Reflectance percentages for COM wavelengths [λ (nm), R air (%)] are: 470: 39.7/41.4; 546: 38.3/39.9; 589: 37.4/39.0; 650: 35.8/37.2. Electron-microprobe data collected on two different samples gave (wt.%): Cu 0.22, Ag 3.15, Tl 0.07, Pb 48.54, Sb 25.41, As 2.82, S 19.74, Se 0.14, Cl 0.03, sum 100.12 (# 1) and Cu 0.22, Ag 3.04, Tl 0.13, Pb 48.53, Sb 25.40, As 2.93, Bi 0.06, S 19.82, Se 0.13, Cl 0.05, sum 100.31 (# 2). On the basis of 112 anions (S+Se+Cl) per formula unit, the empirical formulae are (Ag5.29Cu0.63)∑5.92(Pb42.43Tl0.06)∑42.49(Sb37.80As6.82)∑44.62(S111.53Se0.32Cl0.15)∑112 (# 1) and (Ag5.08Cu0.62)∑5.70(Pb42.22Tl0.12)∑42.34(Sb37.61As7.07Bi0.05)∑44.73(S111.45Se0.30Cl0.25)∑112 (# 2). Main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are [d in Å (relative visual intensity)]: 3.762 (m), 3.663 (s), 3.334 (vs), 3.244 (s), 3.016 (m), 2.968 (m), 2.902 (m), 2.072 (ms). The crystal structure study gave a monoclinic unit cell, space group P21, with a = 8.2393(1), b = 43.6015(13), c = 28.3688(8) Å, β = 94.128(2)°, V = 10164.93(2) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure has been solved and refined to a final R 1 = 0.122 on the basis of 49,037 observed reflections. The structure is based on two building blocks, both formed by a complex column with a pseudotrigonal Pb6S12 core and two arms of unequal lengths (short and long arms, respectively). Two different kinds of short arms occur in meerschautite. One is an Ag-rich arm, whereas the other shows localized Sb–O–Sb bonds. Meerschautite is an expanded derivative of owyheeite and has quasi-homeotypic relationships with sterryite and parasterryite.
    • A new telluride topology: the crystal structure of honeaite Au3TlTe2

      Welch, MD; Still, JW; Rice, CM; Stanley, Christopher (Cambridge University Press, 2017-06)
      The crystal structure of the first thallium-bearing gold telluride, honeaite Au3TlTe2, is reported and its topological novelty discussed. Honeaite is orthorhombic, space group Pbcm and unit-cell parameters a = 8.9671(4), b = 8.8758(4), c= 7.8419(5) Å, V = 624.14(6) Å3 (Z = 4). Its structure has been refined to R 1 = 0.033, w R 2 = 0.053, Goof = 1.087. The structure is based upon a corrugated double-sheet comprising two sub-sheets, each composed of six-memberedrings of corner-linked TeAu3 pyramids in which the Te lone pair is stereoactive. Rows of thallium atoms lie in the grooves between sheets and provide the only inter-sheet connectivity via Tl-Au bonds. There is extensive Au-Au bonding linking the two sub-sheets of the double-sheet.The structure is distinct from those of the 1:2 (Au,Ag)-tellurides: calaverite AuTe2, sylvanite AuAgTe4 and krennerite Au3AgTe8, which are based upon sheet structures with no connecting inter-sheet atoms. It also differs fundamentally from the structuresof synthetic phases Ag3TlTe2 and Ag18Tl4Te11, both of which have an analogous stoichiometry. In contrast to the pyramidal TeAu3 group of honeaite and krennerite, Ag does not form the corresponding TeAg3 group in itstellurides.
    • Norilskite, (Pd,Ag)7Pb4, a new mineral from Noril'sk-Talnakh deposit, Russia

      Vymazalova, A; Laufek, F; Sluzhenikin, SF; Stanley, Christopher (Cambridge University Press, 2017-06)
      Norilskite, (Pd,Ag)7Pb4 is a new platinum-group mineral discovered in the Mayak mine of the Talnakh deposit, Russia. It forms anhedral grains in aggregates (up to ∼400 μm) with polarite, zvyagintsevite, Pd-rich tetra-auricupride, Pd-Pt bearing auricupride,Ag-Au alloys, (Pb,As,Sb) bearing atokite, mayakite, Bi-Pb-rich kotulskite and sperrylite in pentlandite, cubanite and talnakhite. Norilskite is brittle, has a metallic lustre and a grey streak. Values of VHN20 fall between 296 and 342 kg mm–2, with a mean valueof 310 kg mm–2, corresponding to a Mohs hardness of ∼4. In plane-polarized light, norilskite is orange-brownish pink, has moderate to strong bireflectance, orange-pink to greyish-pink pleochroism, and strong anisotropy; it exhibits no internal reflections. Reflectancevalues of norilskite in air (Ro, Re' in %) are: 51.1, 48.8 at 470 nm, 56.8, 52.2 at 546 nm, 59.9, 53.5 at 589 nm and 64.7, 55.5 at 650 nm. Sixteen electronmicroprobe analyses of natural norilskite gave an average composition: Pd 44.33, Ag 2.68, Bi 0.33 and Pb 52.34, total99.68 wt.%, corresponding to the empirical formula (Pd6.56Ag0.39)∑6.95(Pb3.97Bi0.03)∑4.00 based on 4 Pb + Bi atoms; the average of eight analyses on synthetic norilskite is: Pd 42.95, Ag 3.87 and Pb 53.51, total 100.33wt.%, corresponding to (Pd6.25Ag0.56)∑6.81Pb4.00. The mineral is trigonal, space group P3121, with a = 8.9656(4), c = 17.2801(8) Å, V = 1202.92(9) Å3 and Z = 6. The crystalstructure was solved and refined from the powder X-ray diffraction data of synthetic (Pd,Ag)7Pb4. Norilskite crystallizes in the Ni13Ga3Ge6 structure type, related to nickeline. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction patternof synthetic norilskite [d in Å (I) (hkl)] are: 3.2201(29)(023,203), 2.3130(91)(026,206), 2.2414(100)(220), 1.6098(28)(046,406), 1.3076(38)(246,462), 1.2942(18)(600), 1.2115(37)(22.12,12.13), 0.9626(44) (06.12,60.12). The mineral is named for the locality, the Noril'sk district in Russia.
    • Oscarkempffite, Ag10Pb4(Sb17Bi9)∑ 26S48, a new Sb-Bi member of the lillianite homologous series

      Topa, D; Makovicky, E; Paar, WH; Stanley, Christopher; Roberts, AC (2016-08)
    • Palladosilicide, Pd2Si, a new mineral from the Kapalagulu Intrusion, Western Tanzania and the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

      Cabri, LJ; McDonald, AM; Rudashevsky, NS; Poirier, G; Wilhelmij, HR; Zhe, W; Rudashevsky, VN; Stanley, Christopher (2015-04)
    • Structural and compositional variations of basic Cu(II) chlorides in the herbertsmithite and gillardite structure field.

      Sciberras, Matthew J.; Leverett, Peter; Williams, Peter A.; Schlüter, Jochen; Malcherek, Thomas; Welch, Mark D.; Downes, Peter J.; Hibbs, David E.; Kampf, Anthony R. (Mineralogical Society, 2016)
    • Trace-element geochemistry of molybdenite from porphyry Cu deposits of the Birgilda-Tomino ore cluster (South Urals, Russia)

      Plotinskaya, OY; Abramova, VD; Groznova, EO; Tessalina, SG; Seltmann, Reimar; Spratt, J (Cambridge University Press, 2018-05)
      Mineralogical, electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry data from molybdenite within two porphyry copper deposits (Kalinovskoe and Birgilda) of the Birgilda-Tomino ore cluster (South Urals) are presented.† The results provide evidence that molybdenites from these two sites have similar trace-element chemistry. Most trace elements (Si, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sb, Te, Pb, Bi, Au, As and Se) form mineral inclusions within molybdenite. The Re contents in molybdenite vary from 8.7 ppm to 1.13 wt.%. The Re distribution within single molybdenite flakes is always extremely heterogeneous. It is argued that a temperature decrease favours the formation of Re-rich molybdenite. The high Re content of molybdenite observed points to a mantle-derived source.