• Anthicidae

      Telnov, D; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, M (Mukhametov G.V., 2019-07-01)
      The inventory includes information about 184 alien beetle species established European Russia. For each species the following information is provided: biology, economic impact, methods of detection and identification, possible vectors of invasion, native range, current range, first record in European Russia, recent distribution in European Russia, history of invasion, reliability of assignment of the species to alien species and official status (for quarantine species and species included to European Alien Species Information Network). For each species the diagnostic characters and reference to identification guides are included. For the most of species original photos are provided. The inventory is intended for entomologists, which study fauna of beetles in different regions of Russia, for environmental protection organizations, plant quarantine and plant protection services.
    • Cladistics

      Kitching, I; Forey, PL; Williams, DM (Elsevier, 2017-01-01)
      Cladistics is a class of methods of biological classification that groups taxa hierarchically into discrete sets and subsets. This article presents the principles and concepts of cladistics and describes the principal analytical methods. The operations by which observations of organisms are coded for analysis are explained, followed by the methods for reconstructing the hierarchical relationships among taxa (usually expressed as branching diagrams termed cladograms). Statistics and principles for determining the degree of fit between data and cladograms are discussed, which permit choices to be made among competing cladograms.
    • Cyclophyllidea van Beneden in Braun, 1900

      Mariaux, J; Tkach, VV; Vasileva, GP; Waeschenbach, A; Beveridge, I; Dimitrova, Y; Haukisalmi, V; Greiman, SE; Littlewood, DT; Makarikov, AA; et al. (The KU Natural History MuseumLawrence, Kansas, 2017-07-20)
    • Deep-Sea Mining: Processes and Impacts

      Jones, Daniel; Amon, Diva; Chapman, Abbie (Oxford University Press, 2020-08-27)
      Mining the extensive accumulations of minerals on the seafloor of the deep ocean can provide important resources but also has the potential to lead to widespread environmental impacts. Some of these impacts are unknown but there are expected to be differences between the mining of the three main resource types: polymetallic nodules, seafloor massive sulphides and cobalt-rich crusts. Here we detail the mining processes as well as the expected impacts of mining and discuss their potential effects to deep-ocean ecosystems. We also highlight the missing evidence needed to underpin effective environmental management and regulation of the nascent deep-sea mining industry.
    • Epigenesis

      Wilkinson, JJ (SpringerLink, 2017-02-01)
    • Faunal Remains: Results by Species

      Knight, B; Milner, N; O'Connor, T; Elliott, B; Robson, H; Buckley, M; Witkowski, P; Charlton, S; Craig, O; Collins, M; et al. (White Rose University PressYork, 2018-04-16)
    • A molecular framework for the Cestoda

      Waeschenbach, A; Littlewood, T; Caira, JN; Jensen, K (The KU Natural History MuseumLawrence, Kansas, 2017-07-20)
    • The molecularization of centipede systematics

      Edgecombe, GD; Giribet, G; Fusco, G (Padova University Press, 2019-01)
      The injection of molecular data over the past 20 years has impacted on all facets of centipede systematics. Multi-locus and transcriptomic datasets are the source of a novel hypothesis for how the five living orders of centipedes interrelate but force homoplasy in some widely-accepted phenotypic and behavioural characters. Molecular dating is increasingly used to test biogeographic hypotheses, including examples of ancient vicariance. The longstanding challenge of morphological delimitation of centipede species is complemented by integrative taxonomy using molecular tools, including DNA barcoding and coalescent approaches to quantitative species delimitation. Molecular phylogenetics has revealed numerous instances of cryptic species. “Reduced genomic approaches” have the potential to incorporate historic collections, including type specimens, into centipede molecular systematics.
    • Monitoring water-chemistry evolution in the bentonite buffer using magnets: Effects of corrosion on buffer stability

      Mavris, C; Rigonat, N; Harley, S; Butler, IB (Clay Minerals Society, 2016-01-01)
      Bentonite has been chosen as a buffer material by several national nuclear-waste management companies because of its swelling capacity and low water permeability, and because it retards the transport of radionuclides and corrosion products toward the geosphere. The aim of the present study was to develop a magnetic material that has the ability to detect changes in groundwater compositions in an underground nucleardeposit facility through variation in its magnetic properties with time. The present study has investigated the effect of the corrosion of NdFeB magnets on the Na-bentonite buffer under different environmental conditions. Seven different aqueous solutions were used for long-time exposure tests (708C, 5 months) with fragments of NdFeB magnets and powdered Na-bentonite. The corrosion of NdFeB alloy had no detectable effect on the mineralogy of the clay minerals, and any change on the bentonite matrix, measured through X-ray diffraction analysis, was related to the different initial chemistry of the solutions.
    • Moths: Their biology, diversity and evolution

      Lees, David; Zilli, Alberto (Natural History Museum, LondonLondon, 2019-10-29)
      Moths is an accessible introduction to the stunning diversity, life habits and evolution of moths. This iconic insect group encompasses 128 of the 135 families of the scaly winged insects (Lepidoptera), with some 140,000 known species. Moths are among the most successful of the Earth’s inhabitants, with an ancient history, some fossils being dated to 190 million years old. This book traces the structure and development of these winged insects and reveals some of their extraordinary adaptations, such as caterpillars that communicate with ants, as well as their ruthless survival tactics – including blood-sucking, feeding on the tears of sleeping birds, and cannibalism of their own mothers. It also exposes their essential roles in ecosystems and manifold interactions with humans. Often considered denizens of the night, hopelessly allured by lamps and mean to fabrics, the book shines a spotlight on moths, illuminating the bright side of their astonishing diversity.
    • Oil Vulnerability Index, Impact on Arctic Bird Populations (Proposing a Method for Calculating an Oil Vulnerability Index for the Arctic Seabirds)

      O’Hanlon, NJ; Bond, AL; James, NA; Masden, EA (Springer International Publishing, 2020-03-07)
      In recent decades, political and commercial interest in the Arctic’s resources has increased dramatically. With the projected increase in shipping activity and hydrocarbon extraction, there is an increased risk to marine habitats and organisms. This comes with concomitant threats to the fragile Arctic environment especially from oil, whether from shipping accidents, pipeline leaks, or sub-surface well blowouts. Seabirds are among the most threatened group of birds, and the main threats to these species at-sea are commercial fishing and pollution. Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, which can result in mass mortality events. Species are affected to a differing extent, therefore it is important to objectively predict which species are most at risk from oil spills and where. Assessing the vulnerability of seabirds to oil is achieved through establishing an index for the sensitivity of seabirds to oil – Oil Vulnerability Index (OVI). This incorporates spatial information on the distribution and density of birds as well as on species specific behaviours and other life history characteristics. This chapter focuses on the threat of oil to seabirds, especially in the Arctic, and how an OVI can be used to highlight which species are most at risk and where within the Arctic region.
    • The origin of evolutionary storytelling

      Jenner, R; Fusco, G (Padova University PressPadova, Italy, 2019-01)
      Phylogenetics emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a discipline dedicated to constructing descriptive and explanatory narratives that traced the evolutionary origins of taxa and traits. Because ancestors and evolutionary transformations are empirically inaccessible, phylogeneticists had no choice but to use their more or less informed imagination to gain access to this epistemic hinterland. The explanatory power of phylogenetic hypotheses resides in their ability to trace back traits to their evolutionary origins. Hypothetical ancestors therefore became important epistemic tools as they were deliberately equipped with characters that could function as suitable evolutionary precursors for traits of interest. I argue that the precursor potential of hypothetical ancestors therefore became the first, more or less objective, phylogenetic optimality criterion.
    • An overview of the tapeworms of vertebrate bowels of the earth

      Caira, JN; Jensen, K; Georgiev, BB; Kuchta, R; Littlewood, T; Mariaux, J; Scholz, T; Tkach, VV; Waeschenbach, A; Caira, JN; et al. (Lawrence, Kansas, 2017)
    • Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution: A decade later

      Giribet, G; Edgecombe, GD; Fusco, G (University of Padova PressPadova, 2019-01-15)
      Refinements in phylogenomic methods and novel data have clarified several controversies in animal phylogeny that were intractable with traditional PCR-based approaches or early Next Gen analyses. An alliance between Placozoa and Cnidaria has recently found support. Data from newly discovered species of Xenoturbella contribute to Xenacoelomorpha being placed as sister group of Nephrozoa rather than within the deuterostomes. Molecular data reinforce the monophyly of Gnathifera and ally the longenigmatic chaetognaths with them. Platyzoa was an artefactual grouping, and deep relationships within Spiralia now depict Rouphozoa (= Gastrotricha + Platyhelminthes) as sister group to Lophotrochozoa, and Gnathifera (plus Chaetognatha) their immediate sister group. A “divide and conquer” strategy of subsampling clades to optimize gene selection may be needed to simultaneously resolve the many disparate clades of the animal tree of life
    • Porphyry indicator minerals and their mineral chemistry as vectoring and fertility tools

      Wilkinson, JJ; Cooke, DR; Baker, MJ; Chang, Z; Wilkinson, CC; Chen, H; Fox, N; Hollings, P; White, NC; Gemmell, JB; et al. (Geological Survey of CanadaOttawa, 2017-12-21)
    • The Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) and Its Botanical Relatives

      Knapp, S; Peralta, IE; Causse, M; Giovannoni, J; Bouzayen, M; Zouine, M (Springer, 2016-11-24)
      The cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., is a member of the small section Lycopersicon along with its 12 wild relatives. An additional four species from sections Juglandifolia and Lycopersicoides are traditionally considered as tomato wild relatives. These species are all endemic to South America, but the cultivated tomato itself has achieved worldwide distribution with the help of human populations. Tomato and its wild relatives are part of a larger monophyletic group (the Potato clade) that also contains the potatoes and their wild relatives. Here we review the taxonomic and phylogenetic history, relationships and species-level taxonomy of the cultivated tomato and its wild relatives, and highlight important studies of diversity that remain to be undertaken in the group, especially in light of global environmental and climatic change.