• A juvenile Tristan albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) on land at the Crozet Islands

      Bond, AL; Taylor, Christopher; Kinchin-Smith, David; Fox, Derren; Witcutt, Emma; Ryan, Peter G; Loader, Simon P; Weimerskirch, Henri (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-19)
      Abstract: Albatrosses and other seabirds are generally highly philopatric, returning to natal colonies when they achieve breeding age. This is not universal, however, and cases of extraordinary vagrancy are rare. The Tristan Albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) breeds on Gough Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, with a small population on Inaccessible Island, Tristan da Cunha, ca 380 km away. In 2015, we observed an adult male albatross in Gonydale, Gough Island, which had been ringed on Ile de la Possession, Crozet Islands in 2009 when it was assumed to be an immature Wandering Albatross (D. exulans). We sequenced 1109 bp of the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene from this bird, and confirmed it to be a Tristan Albatross, meaning its presence on Crozet 6 years previous, and nearly 5000 km away, was a case of prospecting behaviour in a heterospecific colony. Given the challenges in identifying immature Diomedea albatrosses, such dispersal events may be more common than thought previously.
    • Käfer (Coleoptera) im Gebiet des Furkapasses, Kantone Uri und Wallis

      Germann, C; Geiser, M; Luka, H; Sprecher, E; Schatz, I (Swiss Entomological Society, 2015-01-01)
      Beetles (Coleoptera) in the region of the Furkapass (cantons Uri and Valais). – One hundred eleven species of beetles were identified in the region of the Furkapass (2300–2700 ma.s.l.). This species richness is high compared to that of similar biotopes in the Swiss Alps. The records of Psylliodes schwarzi Weise, 1900, Mycetoporus inaris Luze, 1901 and Cratosilis distinguenda (Baudi, 1859) on the northern side of the Alps are remarkable.
    • Käfer aus Lichtfängen am Monte San Giorgio bei Serpiano, Kanton Tessin (Coleoptera)

      Herger, P; Germann, C; Uhlig, M; Vogel, J; Geiser, M; Kirejtshuk, A (Swiss Entomological Society, 2015-01-01)
      Beetles from light traps at Monte San Giorgio near Serpiano, canton of Ticino (Coleoptera). − During a biodiversity study in southern Ticino, insects were regularly collected with light traps at Monte San Giorgio near Serpiano, 630 ma.s.l., from 1995 to 1997. In total, 6638 beetles were collected, representing more than 366 species from 56 families. The present article provides an overview of the Coleoptera recorded, among them one species new to Switzerland: Malthodes vincens Gredler, 1870. Twenty-two species are new to the canton of Ticino.
    • Kleurenkennis

      van Grouw, Hein (Roots Vogelmagazine, 2021-04-01)
    • Knowledge, perceptions and practices regarding schistosomiasis among women living in a highly endemic rural district in Zimbabwe: implications on infections among preschool-aged children

      Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Masceline Jenipher; Matsena-Zingoni, Zvifadzo; Tshuma, Cremance; Katsidzira, Agnes; Webster, BL; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Midzi, Nicholas (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-09-23)
      Abstract Background Schistosomiasis primarily affects poor and neglected communities due to their lack of safe water and sanitation facilities. In an effort to improve intervention strategies, the present study investigated the association of socio-demographic characteristics of women with their existing knowledge, perceptions and practices (KPP) in five urogenital schistosomiasis endemic rural communities in Zimbabwe. Methods In February 2016, a cross sectional study was conducted in which 426 women in rural Madziwa area, Shamva District were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire seeking their KPP and socio-demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify socio-demographic factors associated with the KPP variables. Results Among the 426 participants, 93.7% knew about schistosomiasis, while 97.7 and 87.5% understood the disease transmission and methods for prevention, respectively. A significantly higher percentage of women aged ≥ 30 years compared to those < 30 years indicated that infertility is a complication of untreated chronic schistosomiasis (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9–3.0). Compared to women who had no history of infection, those who had been infected before were more likely to think that they were currently infected (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.4–6.0). Bathing in unsafe water sources was more common in non-apostolic compared to apostolic followers (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2–3.7). Sole use of unsafe water for domestic purposes was significantly higher in uneducated women compared to the educated (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0–3.1). Compared to women of the Chakondora community, those in Chihuri, Nduna and Kaziro were more likely to know that dysuria is a symptom of schistosomiasis while those in Chihuri were also likely to allow young children to perform water contact activities (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Conclusions Despite the high level of schistosomiasis awareness, some women had inadequate knowledge about the mode of transmission and preventive measures for schistosomiasis. Socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the KPP of women. Thus, disease control efforts should consider socio-demographic factors, which may influence the knowledge, perceptions and practices of occupants in a given setting.
    • Laboratory based feeding behaviour of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Varunidae): fish egg consumption (De Haan, 1835)

      Webster, J; Clark, P; Morritt, D (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre, 2015-06)
      Dispersal of Eriocheir sinensis from its native habitat is a worldwide concern. As one of the most invasive species known, this crab causes significant disruption to foreign ecosystems. In particular, populations in the United Kingdom (UK) are increasing in number and E. sinensis has been reported from many river catchments. The ecological implications of this invasion are not fully understood. One aspect of concern lies in the potential for mitten crabs to predate fish eggs which, if realistic, could contribute to the decline of riverine populations. In this study, 100 mitten crabs from the River Thames were used in experimental feeding trials to 1) investigate foraging ability on a variety of fish eggs and 2) establish whether crab size affected foraging potential. Eggs ranged from 1–6 millimetres (mm) in diameter from one of four species of marine and freshwater fish; zebrafish, lumpfish, Pacific salmon and trout. Predation by crabs varied with egg type; crabs were capable of foraging 1mm zebrafish eggs, but the majority consumed eggs 2–6mm in diameter. The most attractive eggs were apparently lumpfish, where the median proportion consumed was 100%. Crab size did not appear to govern foraging potential, though variation was observed in the size range of juvenile crabs consuming the different eggs with the largest, salmon, being consumed by crabs of the broadest size range. E. sinensis does have the potential to predate on a range of fish eggs, and the results are used to infer the risk presented to specific groups of UK fish stocks.
    • Large reorganizations in butterfly communities during an extreme weather event

      De Palma, A; Dennis, RLH; Brereton, T; Leather, SR; Oliver, TH (2017-05)
    • A Late Miocene methane-seep fauna from Kalimantan, Indonesia

      Kiel, S; Reich, S; Renema, W; Taylor, JD; Wesselingh, FP; Todd, JA; Anon (Instytut Paleobiologii PAN.Warsaw, 2016-06-13)
    • Late Silurian zircon U–Pb ages from the Ludlow and Downton bone beds, Welsh Basin, UK

      Catlos, EJ; Mark, DF; Suarez, S; Brookfield, ME; Giles Miller, C; Schmitt, AK; Gallagher, V; Kelly, A (Geological Society of London, 2020-09-21)
      The Ludlow Bone Bed (Welsh Basin) is a critical stratigraphic horizon and contains a rich assemblage of fish scales. Units above provide insights into the early evolution of animal and plant life. The bed has not yet been radioisotopically dated. Here, we report 207 secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ages from 102 zircon (ZrSiO4) grains from the Ludlow (n = 2) and stratigraphically higher Downton (n = 1) bone beds. SIMS ages are middle Ordovician (471.6 ± 20.7 Ma) to late Devonian (375.7 ± 14.6 Ma, 238U–206Pb, ±1σ analytical uncertainty). Cathodoluminescence images show that the youngest ages appear affected by alteration. Chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U–Pb geochronology was utilized to improve precision. Detrital zircon grains from Downton yield 424.91 ± 0.34/0.42/0.63 Ma and from Ludlow 424.85 ± 0.32/0.41/0.62 Ma (n = 5 each, 238U–206Pb, ±2σ analytical, tracer or systematic uncertainty). These ages provide a maximum deposition age. Results overlap the basal Přídolí age (423.0 ± 2.3 Ma) in its stratotype (Požáry Section, Reporyje, Prague, Czech Republic). The Ludlow Bone Bed marks the base of the local Downton Group, which has previously been correlated with the base of the Přídolí Series. The CA-ID-TIMS ages are older than those for other land arthropod-bearing sediments, such as the Cowie Harbour Fish Bed and Rhynie Chert.
    • Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

      Nicholson, DB; Holroyd, PA; Valdes, P; Barrett, PM (2016-11)
    • Lead-antimony sulfosalts from Tuscany (Italy). XVII. Meerschautite, (Ag,Cu)5.5Pb42.4(Sb,As)45.1S112O0.8, a new expanded derivative of owyheeite from the Pollone mine, Valdicastello Carducci: occurrence and crystal structure

      Biagioni, Cristian; Moëlo, Yves; Orlandi, Paolo; Stanley, Christopher (Cambridge University Press, 2016-06-01)
      The new mineral species meerschautite, ideally (Ag,Cu)5.5Pb42.4(Sb,As)45.1S112O0.8, has been discovered in the baryte + pyrite ± (Pb-Zn-Ag) deposit of the Pollone mine, near Valdicastello Carducci, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy. It occurs as black prismatic crystals, striated along [100], up to 2 mm long and 0.5 mm thick, associated with baryte, boulangerite, pyrite, quartz and sphalerite. Meerschautite is opaque with a metallic lustre and shows a black streak. In reflected light, meerschautite is white in colour, weakly bireflectant and non pleochroic. With crossed polars, it is distinctly anisotropic with grey to dark grey rotation tints with brownish and greenish shades. Reflectance percentages for COM wavelengths [λ (nm), R air (%)] are: 470: 39.7/41.4; 546: 38.3/39.9; 589: 37.4/39.0; 650: 35.8/37.2. Electron-microprobe data collected on two different samples gave (wt.%): Cu 0.22, Ag 3.15, Tl 0.07, Pb 48.54, Sb 25.41, As 2.82, S 19.74, Se 0.14, Cl 0.03, sum 100.12 (# 1) and Cu 0.22, Ag 3.04, Tl 0.13, Pb 48.53, Sb 25.40, As 2.93, Bi 0.06, S 19.82, Se 0.13, Cl 0.05, sum 100.31 (# 2). On the basis of 112 anions (S+Se+Cl) per formula unit, the empirical formulae are (Ag5.29Cu0.63)∑5.92(Pb42.43Tl0.06)∑42.49(Sb37.80As6.82)∑44.62(S111.53Se0.32Cl0.15)∑112 (# 1) and (Ag5.08Cu0.62)∑5.70(Pb42.22Tl0.12)∑42.34(Sb37.61As7.07Bi0.05)∑44.73(S111.45Se0.30Cl0.25)∑112 (# 2). Main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are [d in Å (relative visual intensity)]: 3.762 (m), 3.663 (s), 3.334 (vs), 3.244 (s), 3.016 (m), 2.968 (m), 2.902 (m), 2.072 (ms). The crystal structure study gave a monoclinic unit cell, space group P21, with a = 8.2393(1), b = 43.6015(13), c = 28.3688(8) Å, β = 94.128(2)°, V = 10164.93(2) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure has been solved and refined to a final R 1 = 0.122 on the basis of 49,037 observed reflections. The structure is based on two building blocks, both formed by a complex column with a pseudotrigonal Pb6S12 core and two arms of unequal lengths (short and long arms, respectively). Two different kinds of short arms occur in meerschautite. One is an Ag-rich arm, whereas the other shows localized Sb–O–Sb bonds. Meerschautite is an expanded derivative of owyheeite and has quasi-homeotypic relationships with sterryite and parasterryite.
    • The life and times of Pteridinium simplex

      Darroch, Simon AF; Gibson, Brandt M; Syversen, Maggie; Rahman, Imran; Racicot, Rachel A; Dunn, Frances S; Gutarra Diaz, Susana V.; Schindler, Eberhard; Wehrmann, Achim; Laflamme, Marc (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-05-17)
      Pteridinium simplex is an iconic erniettomorph taxon best known from late Ediacaran successions in South Australia, Russia, and Namibia. Despite nearly 100 years of study, there remain fundamental questions surrounding the paleobiology and paleoecology of this organism, including its life position relative to the sediment–water interface, and how it fed and functioned within benthic communities. Here, we combine a redescription of specimens housed at the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt with field observations of fossiliferous surfaces, to constrain the life habit of Pteridinium and gain insights into the character of benthic ecosystems shortly before the beginning of the Cambrian. We present paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggesting that Pteridinium was semi-infaunal and lived gregariously in aggregated communities, preferentially adopting an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the prevailing current direction. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that this life habit could plausibly have led to suspended food particles settling within the organism's central cavity. This supports interpretation of Pteridinium as a macroscopic suspension feeder that functioned similarly to the coeval erniettomorph Ernietta, emblematic of a broader paleoecological shift toward benthic suspension-feeding strategies over the course of the latest Ediacaran. Finally, we discuss how this new reconstruction of Pteridinium provides information concerning its potential relationships with extant animal groups and state a case for reconstructing Pteridinium as a colonial metazoan.
    • Linking mineralogy and spectroscopy of highly aqueously altered CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites in preparation for primitive asteroid sample return

      Bates, HC; King, AJ; Donaldson Hanna, KL; Bowles, NE; Russell, Sara (Wiley, 2019-11-19)
      The highly hydrated, petrologic type 1 CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites likely derived from primitive, water‐rich asteroids, two of which are the targets for JAXA's Hayabusa2 and NASA's OSIRIS‐REx missions. We have collected visible and near‐infrared (VNIR) and mid infrared (MIR) reflectance spectra from well‐characterized CM1/2, CM1, and CI1 chondrites and identified trends related to their mineralogy and degree of secondary processing. The spectral slope between 0.65 and 1.05 μm decreases with increasing total phyllosilicate abundance and increasing magnetite abundance, both of which are associated with more extensive aqueous alteration. Furthermore, features at ~3 μm shift from centers near 2.80 μm in the intermediately altered CM1/2 chondrites to near 2.73 μm in the highly altered CM1 chondrites. The Christiansen features (CF) and the transparency features shift to shorter wavelengths as the phyllosilicate composition of the meteorites becomes more Mg‐rich, which occurs as aqueous alteration proceeds. Spectra also show a feature near 6 μm, which is related to the presence of phyllosilicates, but is not a reliable parameter for estimating the degree of aqueous alteration. The observed trends can be used to estimate the surface mineralogy and the degree of aqueous alteration in remote observations of asteroids. For example, (1) Ceres has a sharp feature near 2.72 μm, which is similar in both position and shape to the same feature in the spectra of the highly altered CM1 MIL 05137, suggesting abundant Mg‐rich phyllosilicates on the surface. Notably, both OSIRIS‐REx and Hayabusa2 have onboard instruments which cover the VNIR and MIR wavelength ranges, so the results presented here will help in corroborating initial results from Bennu and Ryugu.