• Oil Vulnerability Index, Impact on Arctic Bird Populations (Proposing a Method for Calculating an Oil Vulnerability Index for the Arctic Seabirds)

      O’Hanlon, NJ; Bond, AL; James, NA; Masden, EA (Springer International Publishing, 2020-03-07)
      In recent decades, political and commercial interest in the Arctic’s resources has increased dramatically. With the projected increase in shipping activity and hydrocarbon extraction, there is an increased risk to marine habitats and organisms. This comes with concomitant threats to the fragile Arctic environment especially from oil, whether from shipping accidents, pipeline leaks, or sub-surface well blowouts. Seabirds are among the most threatened group of birds, and the main threats to these species at-sea are commercial fishing and pollution. Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, which can result in mass mortality events. Species are affected to a differing extent, therefore it is important to objectively predict which species are most at risk from oil spills and where. Assessing the vulnerability of seabirds to oil is achieved through establishing an index for the sensitivity of seabirds to oil – Oil Vulnerability Index (OVI). This incorporates spatial information on the distribution and density of birds as well as on species specific behaviours and other life history characteristics. This chapter focuses on the threat of oil to seabirds, especially in the Arctic, and how an OVI can be used to highlight which species are most at risk and where within the Arctic region.
    • Oldfield Thomas: In His Own Words.

      Portela Miguez, R (Natural Sciences Collections Association, 2019-03-28)
      Compilation of a series of non-academic articles written by Oldfield Thomas for the public press.
    • On Temminck's tailless Ceylon Junglefowl, and how Darwin denied their existence

      van Grouw, Hein; Dekkers, W; Rookmaaker, K (British Ornithologists' Club, 2017-12-11)
      Ceylon Junglefowl was described in 1807 by the Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. The specimens he examined were tailless (‘rumpless’) and therefore he named them Gallus ecaudatus. In 1831 the French naturalist René Primevère Lesson described a Ceylon Junglefowl with a tail as Gallus lafayetii (= lafayettii), apparently unaware of Temminck's ecaudatus. Subsequently, ecaudatus and lafayettii were realised to be the same species, of which G.stanleyi and G.lineatus are junior synonyms. However, Charles Darwin tried to disprove the existence of wild tailless junglefowl on Ceylon in favour of his theory on the origin of the domestic chicken.
    • On the front line of modern data-management and Open Access publishing: Two years of PhytoKeys – the fastest growing journal in plant systematics

      Kress, WJ; Knapp, S; Stoev, P; Penev, L (Pensoft Publishers, 2012-12-18)
      PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, openaccess outlet for plant biodiversity research (Penev et al. 2010a). The journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and since its launch continues to grow in reputation and volume.
    • On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae)

      Ribeiro-Silva, S; Knapp, S; Proença, CEB (2017-01-05)
    • On the Identity of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781, a Member of Malachiidae Misplaced in Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) and Consequent Taxonomical Changes in Atelechira Lacordaire, 1848

      Geiser, M; Bezdek, J (The Coleopterists Society, 2019-03-25)
      The type of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781 in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks at the Natural History Museum, London was examined. It turned out that this species is in fact not a member of Atelechira Lacordaire (Chrysomelidae: Clytrini), but rather a member of Hadrocnemus (Malachiidae) as Hadrocnemus aulicus (Fabricius, 1781), new combination. Hadrocnemus hilarus (Evers, 1987) may be synonymous with H. aulicus, but it is here provisionally maintained as a valid taxon pending availability of further material. Atelechira elegans (Thunberg, 1821) is restored as the valid name for the species previously referred to as A. aulica (auct., not Fabricius). A lectotype is designated for C. aulica. All examined types are illustrated, and comments on their distinguishing characters and distribution are added.
    • Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors

      Lacruz, RS; Bromage, TG; O’Higgins, P; Arsuaga, J-L; Stringer, C; Godinho, RM; Warshaw, J; Martínez, I; Gracia-Tellez, A; de Castro, JMB; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-12-07)
      Neanderthals had large and projecting (prognathic) faces similar to those of their putative ancestors from Sima de los Huesos (SH) and different from the retracted modern human face. When such differences arose during development and the morphogenetic modifications involved are unknown. We show that maxillary growth remodelling (bone formation and resorption) of the Devil’s Tower (Gibraltar 2) and La Quina 18 Neanderthals and four SH hominins, all sub-adults, show extensive bone deposition, whereas in modern humans extensive osteoclastic bone resorption is found in the same regions. This morphogenetic difference is evident by ∼5 years of age. Modern human faces are distinct from those of the Neanderthal and SH fossils in part because their postnatal growth processes differ markedly. The growth remodelling identified in these fossil hominins is shared with Australopithecus and early Homo but not with modern humans suggesting that the modern human face is developmentally derived.
    • Opal-A in the Nakhla meteorite: A tracer of ephemeral liquid water in the Amazonian crust of Mars

      Lee, MR; MacLaren, I; Andersson, SML; Kovács, A; Tomkinson, T; Mark, DF; Smith, CL (2015-08)
    • Open data and digital morphology

      Davies, TG; Rahman, IA; Lautenschlager, S; Cunningham, JA; Asher, RJ; Barrett, PM; Bates, KT; Bengtson, S; Benson, RB; Boyer, DM; et al. (2017-04-12)
    • Opening the Woods: Towards a Quantification of Neolithic Clearance Around the Somerset Levels and Moors

      Farrell, M; Bunting, MJ; Sturt, F; Grant, M; Aalbersberg, G; Batchelor, R; Brown, A; Druce, D; Hill, Thomas; Hollinrake, A; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-09-21)
      Environmental reconstructions from pollen records collected within archaeological landscapes have traditionally taken a broadly narrative approach, with few attempts made at hypothesis testing or formal assessment of uncertainty. This disjuncture between the traditional interpretive approach to palynological data and the requirement for detailed, locally specific reconstructions of the landscapes in which people lived has arguably hindered closer integration of palaeoecological and archaeological datasets in recent decades. Here we implement a fundamentally different method for reconstructing past land cover from pollen records to the landscapes of and around the Somerset Levels and Moors—the Multiple Scenario Approach (MSA)—to reconstruct land cover for a series of 200-year timeslices covering the period 4200–2000 cal BC. Modelling of both archaeological and sediment chronologies enables the integration of reconstructed changes in land cover with archaeological evidence of contemporary Neolithic human activity. The MSA reconstructions are presented as a series of land cover maps and as graphs of quantitative measures of woodland clearance tracked over time. Our reconstructions provide a more nuanced understanding of the scale and timing of Neolithic clearance than has previously been available from narrative-based interpretations of pollen data. While the archaeological record tends to promote a view of long-term continuity in terms of the persistent building of wooden structures in the wetlands, our new interpretation of the palynological data contributes a more dynamic and varying narrative. Our case study demonstrates the potential for further integration of archaeological and palynological datasets, enabling us to get closer to the landscapes in which people lived.
    • The origin and diversification of pteropods precede past perturbations in the Earth’s carbon cycle

      Peijnenburg, KTCA; Janssen, AW; Wall-Palmer, D; Goetze, E; Maas, AE; Todd, JA; Marlétaz, F (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020-09-24)
      Pteropods are a group of planktonic gastropods that are widely regarded as biological indicators for assessing the impacts of ocean acidification. Their aragonitic shells are highly sensitive to acute changes in ocean chemistry. However, to gain insight into their potential to adapt to current climate change, we need to accurately reconstruct their evolutionary history and assess their responses to past changes in the Earth’s carbon cycle. Here, we resolve the phylogeny and timing of pteropod evolution with a phylogenomic dataset (2,654 genes) incorporating new data for 21 pteropod species and revised fossil evidence. In agreement with traditional taxonomy, we recovered molecular support for a division between “sea butterflies” (Thecosomata; mucus-web feeders) and “sea angels” (Gymnosomata; active predators). Molecular dating demonstrated that these two lineages diverged in the early Cretaceous, and that all main pteropod clades, including shelled, partially-shelled, and unshelled groups, diverged in the mid- to late Cretaceous. Hence, these clades originated prior to and subsequently survived major global change events, including the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the closest analog to modern-day ocean acidification and warming. Our findings indicate that planktonic aragonitic calcifiers have shown resilience to perturbations in the Earth’s carbon cycle over evolutionary timescales.
    • The origin of evolutionary storytelling

      Jenner, R; Fusco, G (Padova University PressPadova, Italy, 2019-01)
      Phylogenetics emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a discipline dedicated to constructing descriptive and explanatory narratives that traced the evolutionary origins of taxa and traits. Because ancestors and evolutionary transformations are empirically inaccessible, phylogeneticists had no choice but to use their more or less informed imagination to gain access to this epistemic hinterland. The explanatory power of phylogenetic hypotheses resides in their ability to trace back traits to their evolutionary origins. Hypothetical ancestors therefore became important epistemic tools as they were deliberately equipped with characters that could function as suitable evolutionary precursors for traits of interest. I argue that the precursor potential of hypothetical ancestors therefore became the first, more or less objective, phylogenetic optimality criterion.
    • The origin of secondary heavy rare earth element enrichment in carbonatites: Constraints from the evolution of the Huanglongpu district, China

      Smith, M; Kynicky, J; Chen, X; Wenlei, S; Spratt, J; Jeffries, T; Brnicky, M; Kopriva, A; Cangeloosi, D (2018-03-04)
    • Orogen architecture and crustal growth from accretion to collision (IGCP#662): Scientific Activities 2018-2019

      Wang, Tao; Seltmann, Reimar; Huang, He; Tong, Ying; Gladkochub, Dmitry; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; van Staal, Cees; Hou, Zengqian; Safonova, Inna; Xiao, Wenjiao (International Union of Geological Sciences, 2020-07-15)
      The scientific board of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP), jointly sponsored by IUGS and UNESCO, approved for funding in March 2018 the IGCP-662 project (2018-2023) entitled “Orogenic architecture and crustal growth from accretion to collision”. Four meetings and field excursion, as well as training courses, have been successfully held respectively in 2018 and 2019. The first workshop was held during 21th - 22nd September 2018 in Beijing, China, with a 5-day (15th - 19th September) preworkshop field trip and one-day (23 September 2018) post-conference training course on “Using isotopes in zircon and sulfides to understanding crust-mantle evolution”. The second workshop and field trip of the IGCP-662 project were held in Mongolia from July 4th - 10th, 2019. Besides, the IGCP-662 project joined as co-sponsor the organization of an international symposium “The Geology of Eurasia” held at the Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam - German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) during 26th June - 1st July 2019.
    • Oscarkempffite, Ag10Pb4(Sb17Bi9)∑ 26S48, a new Sb-Bi member of the lillianite homologous series

      Topa, D; Makovicky, E; Paar, WH; Stanley, Christopher; Roberts, AC (2016-08)