• An annotated catalogue of type specimens of the land snail genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London

      Panha, S; Nantarat, N; Sutcharit, C; Tongkerd, P; Ablett, J; Naggs, F (Pensoft Publishers, 2014-05-23)
      The collection of land caenogastropod snails in the genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 52 type lots. Lectotypes have been designated for 43 available species-level names to stabilize existing nomenclature, two previously designated lectotype, two holotypes, one paratype, one syntype, one possible syntype and two paralectotypes are also listed. A complete catalogue of the Cyclophorus types in NHM, London is provided for the first time.
    • An annotated type catalogue of seven genera of operculate land snails (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London

      Sutcharit, C; Ablett, J; Panha, S (Pensoft, 2019-05-07)
      The collection of the seven cyclophorid snail genera housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 95 available species-level names belonging to the genera Pterocyclos Benson, 1832, Cyclotus Swainson, 1840, Myxostoma Troschel, 1847, Rhiostoma Benson, 1860, Scabrina Blanford, 1863, Crossopoma Martens, 1891, and Pearsonia Kobelt, 1902. Lectotypes are here designated for twelve available species-level names to stabilise existing the nomenclature. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs, is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, an unpublished manuscript name was found and is described herein as Pterocyclos anamullayensis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n.
    • Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

      Breure, A; Ablett, J (Pensoft Publishers, 2011-10-19)
      The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d’Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.
    • Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

      Breure, A; Ablett, J (Pensoft Publishers, 2012-04-10)
      The type status is described for specimens of 84 taxa classified within the families Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the Natural History Museum, London. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus (Liparus) brazieri Angas, 1871; Bulimus broderipii Sowerby I, 1832; Bulimus fuligineus Pfeiffer, 1853; Helix guarani d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Tomigerus) ramagei E.A. Smith, 1890; Helix rhodinostoma d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Bulimulus) ridleyi E.A. Smith, 1890. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Placostylus (Euplacostylus) cylindricus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus pyrostomus Pfeiffer, 1860; Bulimus turneri Pfeiffer, 1860. The following taxon is synonymised: Bulimus oblitus Reeve, 1848 = Bahiensis neglectus (Pfeiffer, 1847).
    • Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

      Breure, A; Ablett, J (Pensoft Publishers, 2014-03-21)
      The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863); Kuschelenia (K.) gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857); Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) aquilus (Reeve, 1848); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) caliginosus (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) ochracea (Morelet, 1863); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) purpuratus (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) quechuarum (Crawford, 1939); Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849); Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863); Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838); Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846); Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871); Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889). Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.
    • Competition matters: Determining the drivers of land snail community assembly among limestone karst areas in northern Vietnam

      von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; von Oheimb, Katharina C. M.; Hirano, T; Do, TV; Luong, HV; Ablett, J; Pham, SV; Naggs, F (Wiley, 2018-03-26)
      The insular limestone karsts of northern Vietnam harbor a very rich biodiversity. Many taxa are strongly associated with these environments, and individual species communities can differ considerably among karst areas. The exact processes that have shaped the biotic composition of these habitats, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, the role of two major processes for the assembly of snail communities on limestone karsts was investigated, interspecific competition and filtering of taxa due to geographical factors. Communities of operculate land snails of the genus Cyclophorus were studied using the dry and fluid‐preserved specimen collections of the Natural History Museum, London. Phylogenetic distances (based on a Bayesian analysis using DNA sequence data) and shell characters (based on 200 semilandmarks) were used as proxies for ecological similarity and were analyzed to reveal patterns of overdispersion (indicating competition) or clustering (indicating filtering) in observed communities compared to random communities. Among the seven studied karst areas, a total of 15 Cyclophorus lineages were found. Unique communities were present in each area. The analyses revealed phylogenetic overdispersion in six and morphological overdispersion in four of seven karst areas. The pattern of frequent phylogenetic overdispersion indicated that competition among lineages is the major process shaping the Cyclophorus communities studied. The Coastal Area, which was phylogenetically overdispersed, showed a clear morphological clustering, which could have been caused by similar ecological adaptations among taxa in this environment. Only the community in the Cuc Phuong Area showed a pattern of phylogenetic clustering, which was partly caused by an absence of a certain, phylogenetically very distinct group in this region. Filtering due to geographical factors could have been involved here. This study shows how museum collections can be used to examine community assembly and contributes to the understanding of the processes that have shaped karst communities in Vietnam.
    • Cryptic diversity of limestone karst inhabiting land snails (Cyclophorus spp.) in northern Vietnam, their evolutionary history and the description of four new species

      von Oheimb, Katharina C. M.; von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Hirano, T; Do, TV; Ablett, J; Luong, HV; Pham, SV; Naggs, F (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2019-10-23)
      Limestone karsts can form terrestrial habitat islands for calcium-dependent organisms. In Vietnam, many karst habitats are threatened, while their rich biodiversity is still far from being thoroughly explored. Given that conservation of karst biota strongly relies on correct species identification, the presence of undetected cryptic species can pose severe problems. The present study focuses on cryptic diversity among karst-inhabiting land snails of the genus Cyclophorus in northern Vietnam, where specimens with a similar shell morphology have been reported from various regions. In order to examine the diversity and evolutionary history of this “widespread morphotype”, we generated a Bayesian phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and the Bayesian implementation of the Poisson tree processes model (bPTP) contributed to species delimitation and analyses of shell shape and size aided the morphological characterisation of individual species. We found that the examined specimens of the widespread morphotype did not form a single monophyletic group in the phylogeny but clustered into several different clades. We delimited nine different species that develop the widespread morphotype and described four of them as new. Processes of convergent evolution were probably involved in the origin of the delimited species, while their generally allopatric distribution could result from interspecific competition. Our findings indicate ongoing processes of speciation and a potential case of morphological character displacement. The high degree of morphological overlap found among the species underlines the importance of DNA sequence data for species delimitation and description in the genus Cyclophorus. Given the findings of the present study and the high potential that as yet undiscovered cryptic taxa have also evolved in other groups of karst-inhabiting organisms, we argue for a systematic and efficient detection and description of Vietnam’s karst biodiversity to provide a solid basis for future conservation planning.
    • The ‘Demange drawings’: known and unknown malacological contribu- tions of Victor Demange (1870-1940)

      Breure, ASH; Ablett, J (Cernuelle, 2016-09-01)
      In the Bavay archives a collection of drawings of Vietnamese land and freshwater snails is present, which have never been published. They originate from Victor Demange who had them made by a local raftsman. The drawings are here reproduced and some biographical data on Demange, and his contributions to malacology, are presented.
    • The first global deep-sea stable isotope assessment reveals the unique trophic ecology of Vampire Squid Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Cephalopoda)

      Golikov, A; Ceia, F; Sabirov, R; Ablett, J; Gleadall, I; Gudmundsson, G; Hoving, H; Heather, J; Pálsson, J; Reid, AL; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-13)
      Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903, is a widely distributed deepwater cephalopod with unique morphology and phylogenetic position. We assessed its habitat and trophic ecology on a global scale via stable isotope analyses of a unique collection of beaks from 104 specimens from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Cephalopods typically are active predators occupying a high trophic level (TL) and exhibit an ontogenetic increase in δ15N and TL. Our results, presenting the first global comparison for a deep-sea invertebrate, demonstrate that V. infernalis has an ontogenetic decrease in δ15N and TL, coupled with niche broadening. Juveniles are mobile zooplanktivores, while larger Vampyroteuthis are slow-swimming opportunistic consumers and ingest particulate organic matter. Vampyroteuthis infernalis occupies the same TL (3.0–4.3) over its global range and has a unique niche in deep-sea ecosystems. These traits have enabled the success and abundance of this relict species inhabiting the largest ecological realm on the planet.
    • Mollusca Types in Great Britain: founding a union database

      Salvador, A; Ablett, J (NatSCA, 2018)
      Type specimens are essential to the study of malacology and are distributed across a wide range of museums in the UK. This initiative, funded by the John Ellerman Foundation, is the beginning of an integrated access and learning project bringing together curators from across the museum sector. Malacological curators from Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales (AC-NMW) and The Natural History Museum, London (NHM) worked with staff at seven partner museums in six UK cities. Together they developed a database and online resource connecting the Mollusca collections of National and other museums for the first time. At the time of publication, data on over 1800 type lots are available on the ‘Mollusca Types in Great Britain’ website. Since the launch in March 2018, some 1,189 users have accessed the site from over 60 countries. The database and website continue to be developed and new entries can be made at any time. The regional museum partners were given training focused on building confidence in recognising, researching, and interpreting the molluscan type specimens in their collections. The broader aims of this project were to strengthen and develop curatorial skills in specialist areas that could be transferable to other historically important natural history collections.
    • Notes on the sinistral helicoid snail Bertia cambojiensis (Reeve, 1860) from Vietnam (Eupulmonata, Dyakiidae)

      Sutcharit, C; Naggs, F; Ablett, J; Sang, PV; Hao, LV; Panha, S (Pensoft Publishers, 2019-11-04)
      Since the time of the original description there have been no precise locality records in Cambodia of Bertia cambojiensis (Reeve, 1860) and it was believed to be extinct. In 2012, a joint Natural History Museum survey with Vietnamese colleagues rediscovered living populations of this huge sinistral helicoid snail in a protected area of southern Vietnam. The genitalia and radula morphology are re-assessed and type specimens of all recognised congeners are figured herein. The unique morphological characters of this species are a small and simple penis, well-developed amatorial organ complex that incorporates four amatorial organ ducts, a short gametolytic organ complex and spiked papilla, and radula morphology with unicuspid teeth. The type locality of B. cambojiensis, which has been contentious, is determined here to be in the vicinity of ‘Brelum’, Vietnam, near the border with Cambodia. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of barcoding genes COI, 16SrRNA and 28S fragments were provided for further comparison.