• The barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854), and the mitten crab Eriocheir: one invasive species getting off on another!

      Naser, M; Rainbow, P; Clark, P; Yasser, A; Jones, D (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre, 2015-06-16)
    • Beyond dead trees: integrating the scientific process in the Biodiversity Data Journal

      Smith, V; Georgiev, T; Stoev, P; Biserkov, J; Miller, J; Livermore, L; Baker, E; Mietchen, D; Couvreur, T; Mueller, G; et al. (2013-09-16)
    • Beyond the EDGE with EDAM: Prioritising British Plant Species According to Evolutionary Distinctiveness, and Accuracy and Magnitude of Decline

      Pearse, WD; Chase, MW; Crawley, MJ; Dolphin, K; Fay, MF; Joseph, JA; Powney, G; Preston, CD; Rapacciuolo, G; Roy, DB; et al. (2015-05-27)
    • Beyond the “Code”: A Guide to the Description and Documentation of Biodiversity in Ciliated Protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora)

      Warren, A; Patterson, DJ; Dunthorn, M; Clamp, JC; Achilles-Day, UEM; Aescht, E; Al-Farraj, SA; Al-Quraishy, S; Al-Rasheid, K; Carr, M; et al. (2017-07)
    • Bidirectional Introgressive Hybridization between a Cattle and Human Schistosome Species

      Huyse, T; Webster, BL; Geldof, S; Stothard, JR; Diaw, OT; Polman, K; Rollinson, D; Kazura, JW (PLOS, 2009-09-04)
      Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
    • BioAcoustica: a free and open repository and analysis platform for bioacoustics

      Baker, E; Price, BW; Rycroft, SD; Hill, J; Smith, V (2015-01-01)
    • A black page in the French partridge's history: the melanistic variety of Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa

      van Grouw, H; Besson, L; Mellier, B (The British Ornithologists' Club, 2018-12-14)
      The melanistic variety of Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa was described from a small population in western France around the 1850s. In this region, Red-legged Partridge population as a whole was hunted, but melanistic individuals were targeted for both private and museum bird collections, and by 1865 the variety was extinct in western France. An extensive search for extant specimens documented 13 melanistic birds in six museums, and their details are presented here. Remarkably, some of these specimens were collected in areas elsewhere in France or even in other countries. After 1915, the allele for melanism appears to have been lost within the Red-legged Partridge population as a whole, and we discuss possible reasons for this.
    • Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters

      Taboada, S; Riesgo, A; Bas, M; Arnedo, MA; Cristobo, J; Rouse, GW; Avila, C; Kiel, S (2015-11-18)
    • Boris Vasil’evich Skvortzov (1896–1980): notes on his life, family and scientific studies

      Williams, DM; Gololobova, M; Glebova, E (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-15)
      A short account of the life of Boris Vasil’evich Skvortzov (1896–1980) is presented. Some details of his background, his family and his legacy are documented. A short summary of his achievements are included.
    • Brazilian Flora 2020: innovation and collaboration to meet Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)

      Brazil Flora Group (BFG); Knapp, S (Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, 2018-10-26)
      The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was established by the Conference of Parties in 2002 to decrease the loss of plant diversity, reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. To achieve this overarching goal, the GSPC has established a series of targets, one of which is to ensure that plant diversity is well understood, so that it can be effectively conserved and used in a sustainable manner. Brazil hosts more than 46,000 species of plants, algae and fungi, representing one of the most biodiverse countries on Earth, and playing a key role in the GSPC. To meet the GSPC goals of Target 1 and facilitate access to plant diversity, Brazil committed to preparing the List of Species of the Brazilian Flora (2008–2015) and the Brazilian Flora 2020 (2016–present). Managing all the information associated with such great biodiversity has proven to be an extremely challenging task. Here, we synthesize the history of these projects, focusing on the multidisciplinary and collaborative approach adopted to develop and manage the inclusion of all the knowledge generated though digital information systems. We further describe the methods used, challenges faced, and strategies adopted, as well as summarize advances to date and prospects for completing the Brazilian flora in 2020.
    • Bumblebees take the high road: climatically integrative biogeography shows that escape from Tibet, not Tibetan uplift, is associated with divergences of present-day Mendacibombus

      Williams, PH; Lobo, JM; Meseguer, AS (Wiley, 2018-03)
      Many claims that uplift of the Qinghai‐Tibetan plateau (QTP) drove the divergences of extant high‐elevation biota have recently been challenged. For Mendacibombus bumblebees, high‐elevation specialists with distributions centred on the QTP, we examine broader explanations. We extend integrative biogeography to cover multiple contributing factors by using a framework of sequential filters: 1) molecular evidence from four genes is used to estimate phylogenetic relationships, with time calibration from a published estimate; 2) spatial evidence from current distributions is combined with the phylogeny and constrained by a model of short‐distance dispersal along mountain corridors to estimate ancestral distributions by both S‐DIVA and S‐DEC analysis; 3) geological evidence from the literature is used to constrain when high mountain ranges were uplifted to become potential corridors; and 4) climatological evidence from Mendacibombus niche‐evolution reconstructions and from palaeoclimate simulations is used to constrain when habitat was suitable in key gaps within corridors. Explanations for Mendacibombus distributions can be identified that require only short‐distance dispersal along mountain corridors, commensurate with the limited dispersal ability observed for bumblebees. These explanations depend on the timing of uplift of mountain ranges, regional climate change, and climate‐niche evolution. The uplift of the QTP may have contributed to the initial Oligocene divergence of the common ancestor of Mendacibombus from other bumblebees, but for the first two thirds of the history of Mendacibombus, only a single lineage has present‐day descendants. Divergence of multiple extant Mendacibombus lineages coincided with the Late Miocene–Pliocene uplift of externally connecting mountains, combined with regional climate cooling. These changes provided greater connectivity of suitable habitat, allowing these bumblebees to disperse out of the western QTP via new high bridges, escaping along the mountain corridors of the Tian Shan and Hindu Kush ranges, reaching eventually far to the west (Iberian Peninsula) and to the north‐east (Kamchatka).
    • Burmese amber fossils bridge the gap in the Cretaceous record of polypod ferns

      Schmidt, AR; Heinrichs, J; Schneider, Harald (2016-02)
    • Bye-bye dark sky: is light pollution costing us more than just the night-time?

      Lotzof, K; Van Grouw, H; West, S (Natural History Museum, 2018-10-23)
      Humans, birds and several other animals are finding it increasingly challenging to experience night-time uninterrupted by artificial light, while some creatures are handling the change better than others. Hein van Grouw, Senior Curator of Birds, and UK Biodiversity Training Manager Steph West reveal the impacts of light pollution on British wildlife and a few tips for reclaiming your slice of the night sky.
    • A Case of Urogenital Human Schistosomiasis from a Non-endemic Area

      Calvo-Cano, A; Cnops, L; Huyse, T; van Lieshout, L; Pardos, J; Valls, ME; Franco, A; Rollinson, D; Gascon, J; Jones, MK (2015-11-05)
    • Catalogue and composition of fossil Anthicidae and Ischaliidae (Insecta: Coleoptera)

      Telnov, Dmitry; Bukejs, A (Paleontological Society., 2019-04)
      Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on extant tenebrionoid Coleoptera of the Anthicidae and Ischaliidae, their fossil records remained largely unrevised. In the current paper we review all hitherto named ant-like flower beetles and false fire-coloured beetles fossils. We suggest 16 fossil species can be reliably assigned to the Anthicidae and three species to the Ischaliidae. We proposed new placements for two fossil Anthicidae taxa: Petratypus nigri Kaddumi, 2005 moved from Anthicidae to Cucujiformia Familia incertae sedis and “Eurygenius” wickhami Cockerell, 1917 is re-described and moved from Eurygeniinae Anthicidae to Tenebrionoidea Familia and Genus incertae sedis. Additionally, three new species are described from Eocene Baltic amber, namely Nitorus succinius sp. nov., Steropes eleticinoides sp. nov. and Tomoderus saecularis sp. nov. An annotated catalogue of fossil Anthicidae and Ischaliidae is provided. We made a qualitative analysis of available data, evaluated the distribution of fossils in the light of current biogeography and geological time. The oldest hitherto known fossil record of the Anthicidae is 130.0-125.5 Ma (same for Macratriinae), of the Anthicinae - 37.2-33.9 Ma, of the Eurygeniinae - 55.8-48.6 Ma, of the Notoxinae, Steropinae and Tomoderinae - 37.2-33.9 Ma. The oldest hitherto know fossil record of the Ischaliidae is 37.2-33.9 Ma.
    • A cautionary note on the use of Ornstein Uhlenbeck models in macroevolutionary studies

      Cooper, N; Thomas, GH; Venditti, C; Meade, A; Freckleton, RP (2016-05)
    • Centipede venoms as a source of drug leads

      Undheim, EAB; Jenner, RA; King, GF (2016-12)
    • Changes in technology and imperfect detection of nest contents impedes reliable estimates of population trends in burrowing seabirds

      Lavers, JL; Hutton, I; Bond, A (Elsevier, 2019-03-01)
      One of the most fundamental aspects of conservation biology is understanding trends in the abundance of species and populations. This influences conservation interventions, threat abatement, and management by implicitly or explicitly setting targets for favourable conservation states, such as an increasing or stable population. Burrow-nesting seabirds present many challenges for determining abundance reliably, which is further hampered by variability in the quality of previous surveys. We used burrow scopes to determine the population status of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) at their largest colony on Lord Howe Island, Australia, in 2018. We estimated a breeding population of 22,654 breeding pairs (95% CI: 8159–37,909). Comparing burrow scope models used in 2018 found more than half of burrow contents (20/36 burrows examined) were classified differently. If this detection probability is applied retroactively to surveys in 2002 and 2009, we estimate that the Flesh-footed Shearwater population on Lord Howe has decreased by up to 50% in the last decade, but uncertainty around previous surveys’ ability to reliably determine burrow contents means a direct comparison is not possible. The decline in burrow density between 2018 and previous years adds further evidence that the population may not be stable. Our results highlight a need for regular surveys to quantify detection probability so that as video technology advances, previous population estimates remain comparable. We urge caution when comparing population counts of burrowing seabirds using different technologies, to ensure comparisons are meaningful.