• Calculating the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection through pooling of stool samples: Choosing and optimizing the pooling strategy

      Truscott, James; Dunn, Julia; PAPAIAKOVOU, MARINA; Schaer, Fabian; Werkman, Marleen; Littlewood, T; Walson, JL; Anderson, Roy (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2019-03-21)
      Prevalence is a common epidemiological measure for assessing soil-transmitted helminth burden and forms the basis for much public-health decision-making. Standard diagnostic techniques are based on egg detection in stool samples through microscopy and these techniques are known to have poor sensitivity for individuals with low infection intensity, leading to poor sensitivity in low prevalence populations. PCR diagnostic techniques offer very high sensitivities even at low prevalence, but at a greater cost for each diagnostic test in terms of equipment needed and technician time and training. Pooling of samples can allow prevalence to be estimated while minimizing the number of tests performed. We develop a model of the relative cost of pooling to estimate prevalence, compared to the direct approach of testing all samples individually. Analysis shows how expected elative cost depends on both the underlying prevalence in the population and the size of the pools constructed. A critical prevalence level (approx. 31%) above which pooling is never cost effective, independent of pool size. When no prevalence information is available, there is no basis on which to choose between pooling and testing all samples individually. We recast our model of relative cost in a Bayesian framework in order to investigate how prior information about prevalence in a given population can be used to inform the decision to choose either pooling or full testing. Results suggest that if prevalence is below 10%, a relatively small exploratory prevalence survey (10–15 samples) can be sufficient to give a high degree of certainty that pooling may be relatively cost effective.
    • The Caribbean needs big marine protected areas

      Gallagher, AJ; Amon, Diva; Bervoets, T; Shipley, ON; Hammerschlag, N; Sims, DW (American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2020-02-14)
    • A Case of Urogenital Human Schistosomiasis from a Non-endemic Area

      Calvo-Cano, A; Cnops, L; Huyse, T; van Lieshout, L; Pardos, J; Valls, ME; Franco, A; Rollinson, D; Gascon, J; Jones, MK (2015-11-05)
    • Catalogue and composition of fossil Anthicidae and Ischaliidae (Insecta: Coleoptera)

      Telnov, Dmitry; Bukejs, A (Paleontological Society., 2019-04)
      Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on extant tenebrionoid Coleoptera of the Anthicidae and Ischaliidae, their fossil records remained largely unrevised. In the current paper we review all hitherto named ant-like flower beetles and false fire-coloured beetles fossils. We suggest 16 fossil species can be reliably assigned to the Anthicidae and three species to the Ischaliidae. We proposed new placements for two fossil Anthicidae taxa: Petratypus nigri Kaddumi, 2005 moved from Anthicidae to Cucujiformia Familia incertae sedis and “Eurygenius” wickhami Cockerell, 1917 is re-described and moved from Eurygeniinae Anthicidae to Tenebrionoidea Familia and Genus incertae sedis. Additionally, three new species are described from Eocene Baltic amber, namely Nitorus succinius sp. nov., Steropes eleticinoides sp. nov. and Tomoderus saecularis sp. nov. An annotated catalogue of fossil Anthicidae and Ischaliidae is provided. We made a qualitative analysis of available data, evaluated the distribution of fossils in the light of current biogeography and geological time. The oldest hitherto known fossil record of the Anthicidae is 130.0-125.5 Ma (same for Macratriinae), of the Anthicinae - 37.2-33.9 Ma, of the Eurygeniinae - 55.8-48.6 Ma, of the Notoxinae, Steropinae and Tomoderinae - 37.2-33.9 Ma. The oldest hitherto know fossil record of the Ischaliidae is 37.2-33.9 Ma.
    • A cautionary note on the use of Ornstein Uhlenbeck models in macroevolutionary studies

      Cooper, N; Thomas, GH; Venditti, C; Meade, A; Freckleton, RP (2016-05)
    • Centipede venoms as a source of drug leads

      Undheim, EAB; Jenner, RA; King, GF (2016-12)
    • Changes in technology and imperfect detection of nest contents impedes reliable estimates of population trends in burrowing seabirds

      Lavers, JL; Hutton, I; Bond, A (Elsevier, 2019-03-01)
      One of the most fundamental aspects of conservation biology is understanding trends in the abundance of species and populations. This influences conservation interventions, threat abatement, and management by implicitly or explicitly setting targets for favourable conservation states, such as an increasing or stable population. Burrow-nesting seabirds present many challenges for determining abundance reliably, which is further hampered by variability in the quality of previous surveys. We used burrow scopes to determine the population status of Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) at their largest colony on Lord Howe Island, Australia, in 2018. We estimated a breeding population of 22,654 breeding pairs (95% CI: 8159–37,909). Comparing burrow scope models used in 2018 found more than half of burrow contents (20/36 burrows examined) were classified differently. If this detection probability is applied retroactively to surveys in 2002 and 2009, we estimate that the Flesh-footed Shearwater population on Lord Howe has decreased by up to 50% in the last decade, but uncertainty around previous surveys’ ability to reliably determine burrow contents means a direct comparison is not possible. The decline in burrow density between 2018 and previous years adds further evidence that the population may not be stable. Our results highlight a need for regular surveys to quantify detection probability so that as video technology advances, previous population estimates remain comparable. We urge caution when comparing population counts of burrowing seabirds using different technologies, to ensure comparisons are meaningful.
    • Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

      Knapp, S; McNeill, J; Turland, NJ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011-09-14)
      Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.
    • Characterization of methane-seep communities in a deep-sea area designated for oil and natural gas exploitation off Trinidad and Tobago

      Amon, Diva; Gobin, J; Van Dover, CL; Levin, LA; Marsh, L; Raineault, NA (Frontiers, 2017-10-30)
      Exploration of the deep ocean (>200 m) is taking on added importance as human development encroaches. Despite increasing oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation, the deep ocean of Trinidad and Tobago is almost entirely unknown. The only scientific team to image the deep seafloor within the Trinidad and Tobago Exclusive Economic Zone was from IFREMER in the 1980s. That exploration led to the discovery of the El Pilar methane seeps and associated chemosynthetic communities on the accretionary prism to the east of Trinidad and Tobago. In 2014, the E/V Nautilus, in collaboration with local scientists, visited two previously sampled as well as two unexplored areas of the El Pilar site between 998 and 1,629 m depth using remotely operated vehicles. Eighty-three megafaunal morphospecies from extensive chemosynthetic communities surrounding active methane seepage were observed at four sites. These communities were dominated by megafaunal invertebrates including mussels (Bathymodiolus childressi), shrimp (Alvinocaris cf. muricola), Lamellibrachia sp. 2 tubeworms, and Pachycara caribbaeum. Adjacent to areas of active seepage was an ecotone of suspension feeders including Haplosclerida sponges, stylasterids and Neovermilia serpulids on authigenic carbonates. Beyond this were large Bathymodiolus shell middens. Finally there was either a zone of sparse octocorals and other non-chemosynthetic species likely benefiting from the carbonate substratum and enriched production within the seep habitat, or sedimented inactive areas. This paper highlights these ecologically significant areas and increases the knowledge of the biodiversity of the Trinidad and Tobago deep ocean. Because methane seepage and chemosynthetic communities are related to the presence of extractable oil and gas resources, development of best practices for the conservation of biodiversity in Trinidad and Tobago waters within the context of energy extraction is critical. Potential impacts on benthic communities during oil and gas activities will likely be long lasting and include physical disturbance during drilling among others. Recommendations for the stewardship of these widespread habitats include: (1) seeking international cooperation; (2) holding wider stakeholder discussions; (3) adopting stringent environmental regulations; and (4) increasing deep-sea research to gather crucial baseline data in order to conduct appropriate marine spatial planning with the creation of marine protected areas.
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

      Else, GR; Bolton, B; Broad, G (2016-04-07)
      Background: The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information: The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland.
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Braconidae

      Broad, G; Shaw, MR; Godfray, HCJ (2016-04-21)
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea

      Dale-Skey, N; Askew, RR; Noyes, JS; Livermore, L; Broad, G (2016-06-06)
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Cynipoidea

      Forshage, M; Bowdrey, J; Broad, G; Spooner, B; van Veen, F (2017-03-09)
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae

      Broad, G (Pensoft, 2016-07-05)
      Background The checklist of British and Irish Ichneumonidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the Natural History Museum, London and the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. Distribution records are provided at the country level. New information Of the 2,447 species regarded as valid and certainly identified, 214 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. Neorhacodinae is considered to be a separate subfamily rather than a synonym of Tersilochinae. Echthrini is treated as a junior synonym of the tribe Cryptini, not Hemigastrini. Echthrus Gravenhorst and Helcostizus Förster are classified in Cryptini rather than, respectively, Hemigastrini and Phygadeuontini.
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Introduction

      Broad, G (Pensoft, 2014-06-17)
      The last complete checklist of the British and Irish Hymenoptera was that of Fitton et al. (1978). Much has changed in the intervening 36 years, including many changes to the higher classification of Hymenoptera and, of course, the discovery of many additional species. In producing this checklist we (the authors of the various chapters) have tried to provide a useful entry to the literature dealing with the identification and classification of the species involved, particularly for the less familiar parasitoid groups. The checklist also begins the process of summarising data on species' distribution on a country-level basis. I hope that this will serve to stimulate increased interest in this relatively neglected part of the British and Irish fauna. This volume serves as a standard reference point for the British and Irish Hymenoptera fauna, and, hopefully, provides a backbone to recording efforts and the underlying taxonomy. Having an endpoint to this project has stimulated much research in to our fauna, including the critical examination of museum collections, and thus pushed some checklist sections to a state they might not otherwise have reached. Of course, a checklist is never finished. The next incarnation will be digital, and the checklist is already in the process of migrating to a Scratchpad (Hymenoptera of the British Isles), where updates will be maintained as and when changes occur.
    • Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Platygastroidea

      Buhl, PN; Broad, G; Notton, DG (2016-04-22)