• Darwin wasps: a new name heralds renewed efforts to unravel the evolutionary history of Ichneumonidae

      Klopfstein, S; Santos, BF; Shaw, MR; Alvarado, M; Bennett, AMR; Dal Pos, D; Giannotta, M; Herrera Florez, AF; Karlsson, D; Khalaim, AI; et al. (Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 2019-12-08)
      The parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae is arguably one of the groups for which current knowledge lags most strongly behind their enormous diversity. In a five-day meeting in Basel (Switzerland) in June 2019, 22 researchers from 14 countries met to discuss the most important issues in ichneumonid research, including increasing the speed of species discovery, resolving higher-level relationships, and studying the radiation of these parasitoids onto various host groups through time. All agreed that it is time to advertise ichneumonid research more broadly and thereby attract young talents to this group for which specialists are sorely lacking, as well as increase public awareness about their exciting biology and ecological impact. In order to popularize the group, we here suggest a new vernacular name for the family, “Darwin wasps”, to reflect the pivotal role they played in convincing Charles Darwin that not all of creation could have been created by a benevolent god. We hope that the name catches on, and that Darwin wasps start buzzing more loudly across all disciplines of biology.
    • Darwin’s Fancy Revised: An Updated Understanding of the Genomic Constitution of Pigeon Breeds

      Pacheco, G; van Grouw, Hein; Shapiro, MD; Gilbert, MTP; Vieira, FG (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-02-13)
      Through its long history of artificial selection, the rock pigeon (Columba livia Gmelin, 1789) was forged into a large number of domestic breeds. The incredible amount of phenotypic diversity exhibited in these breeds has long held the fascination of scholars, particularly those interested in biological inheritance and evolution. However, exploiting them as a model system is challenging, as unlike with many other domestic species, few reliable records exist about the origins of, and relationships between, each of the breeds. Therefore, in order to broaden our understanding of the complex evolutionary relationships among pigeon breeds, we generated genome-wide data by performing the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) method on close to 200 domestic individuals representing over 60 breeds. We analyzed this GBS data alongside previously published Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) data, and this combined analysis allowed us to conduct the most extensive phylogenetic analysis of the group, including two feral pigeons and one outgroup. We improve previous phylogenies, find considerable population structure across the different breeds, and identify unreported interbreed admixture events. Despite the reduced number of loci relative to WGS, we demonstrate that GBS data provide sufficient analytical power to investigate intertwined evolutionary relationships, such as those that are characteristic of animal domestic breeds. Thus, we argue that future studies should consider sequencing methods akin to the GBS approach as an optimal cost-effective approach for addressing complex phylogenies.
    • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

      Hudson, L; Newbold, T; Contu, S; Hill, SLL; Lysenko, I; De Palma, A; Phillips, HRP; Alhusseini, T; Bedford, FE; Bennett, DJ; et al. (2017-01)
    • Decomposed liver has a significantly adverse affect on the development rate of the blowfly Calliphora vicina

      Richards, CS; Rowlinson, CC; Cuttiford, Lue; Grimsley, R; Hall, MJR (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2012-04-26)
      The development rate of immature Calliphora vicina reared on decomposed liver was significantly slower, by as much as 30 h (55.4 % of total development time) for mid-sized larvae, and 71 h (35.0 %) and 58 h (14.6 %) if using times to the onset of pupariation and eclosion, respectively, than those of immatures that developed on fresh whole pig's liver. Development rates of larvae reared on decomposed liver were also slower than those of larvae reared on minced pig's liver and frozen/thawed pig's liver. These results suggest that any estimate of minimum post-mortem interval may result in an over estimate if the blowflies used were developing on an already decomposed body.
    • Deep-sea anthropogenic macrodebris harbours rich and diverse communities of bacteria and archaea

      Woodall, LC; Jungblut, AD; Hopkins, K; Hall, A; Robinson, LF; Gwinnett, C; Paterson, GLJ (PLOS, 2018-11-28)
      The deep sea is the largest biome on earth, and microbes dominate in biomass and abundance. Anthropogenic litter is now almost ubiquitous in this biome, and its deposition creates new habitats and environments, including for microbial assemblages. With the ever increasing accumulation of this debris, it is timely to identify and describe the bacterial and archaeal communities that are able to form biofilms on macrodebris in the deep sea. Using 16S rRNA gene high throughput sequencing, we show for the first time the composition of bacteria and archaea on macrodebris collected from the deep sea. Our data suggest differences in the microbial assemblage composition across litter of different materials including metal, rubber, glass, fabric and plastic. These results imply that anthropogenic macrodebris provide diverse habitats for bacterial and archaeal biofilms and each may harbour distinct microbial communities.
    • Deep-Sea Debris in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean

      Amon, Diva; Kennedy, BRC; Cantwell, K; Suhre, K; Glickson, D; Shank, TM; Rotjan, RD (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-05-27)
      Marine debris is a growing problem in the world’s deep ocean. The naturally slow biological and chemical processes operating at depth, coupled with the types of materials that are used commercially, suggest that debris is likely to persist in the deep ocean for long periods of time, ranging from hundreds to thousands of years. However, the realized scale of marine debris accumulation in the deep ocean is unknown due to the logistical, technological, and financial constraints related to deep-ocean exploration. Coordinated deep-water exploration from 2015 to 2017 enabled new insights into the status of deep-sea marine debris throughout the central and western Pacific Basin via ROV expeditions conducted onboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and RV Falkor. These expeditions included sites in United States protected areas and monuments, other Exclusive Economic Zones, international protected areas, and areas beyond national jurisdiction. Metal, glass, plastic, rubber, cloth, fishing gear, and other marine debris were encountered during 17.5% of the 188 dives from 150 to 6,000 m depth. Correlations were observed between deep-sea debris densities and depth, geological features, and distance from human-settled land. The highest densities occurred off American Samoa and the main Hawaiian Islands. Debris, mostly consisting of fishing gear and plastic, were also observed in most of the large-scale marine protected areas, adding to the growing body of evidence that even deep, remote areas of the ocean are not immune from human impacts. Interactions with and impacts on biological communities were noted, though further study is required to understand the full extent of these impacts. We also discuss potential sources and long-term implications of this debris.
    • Deep-Sea Exploration of the US Gulf of Mexico with NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

      France, Scott C.; Amon, Diva; Messing, Charles; Skarke, Adam; Wagner, Daniel; White, Michael P.; Kennedy, BRC; Pawlenko, Nick (The Oceanography Society, 2019-03-01)
    • Deep-Sea Mining: Processes and Impacts

      Jones, Daniel; Amon, Diva; Chapman, Abbie (Oxford University Press, 2020-08-27)
      Mining the extensive accumulations of minerals on the seafloor of the deep ocean can provide important resources but also has the potential to lead to widespread environmental impacts. Some of these impacts are unknown but there are expected to be differences between the mining of the three main resource types: polymetallic nodules, seafloor massive sulphides and cobalt-rich crusts. Here we detail the mining processes as well as the expected impacts of mining and discuss their potential effects to deep-ocean ecosystems. We also highlight the missing evidence needed to underpin effective environmental management and regulation of the nascent deep-sea mining industry.
    • Deep-Sea Misconceptions Cause Underestimation of Seabed-Mining Impacts

      Smith, CR; Tunnicliffe, V; Colaço, A; Drazen, JC; Gollner, S; Levin, LA; Mestre, NC; Metaxas, A; Molodtsova, TN; Morato, T; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-07-31)
      Scientific misconceptions are likely leading to miscalculations of the environmental impacts of deepseabed mining. These result from underestimating mining footprints relative to habitats targeted and poor understanding of the sensitivity, biodiversity, and dynamics of deep-sea ecosystems. Addressing these misconceptions and knowledge gaps is needed for effective management of deep-seabed mining.
    • Deepwater Exploration of the Marianas [in special issue: New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The E/V Nautilus, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and R/V Falkor Field Season

      Amon, Diva; Fryer, P; Glickson, D; Pomponi, SA; Lobecker, E; Cantwell, K; Elliott, K; Sowers, D (The Oceanography Society, 2017-03-01)
    • Defining principles for mobile apps and platforms development in citizen science

      Sturm, U; Gold, M; Luna, S; Schade, S; Ceccaroni, L; Kyba, CCM; Claramunt, B; Haklay, M; Kasperowski, D; Albert, A; et al. (2018-01-04)
    • Delegating sex: differential gene expression in stolonizing syllids uncovers the hormonal control of reproduction in Annelida

      Alvarez-Campos, P; Kenny, NJ; Verdes, A; Fernandez, RM; Novo, M; Giribet, G; Riesgo, A (Oxford Academic, 2018-12-11)
      Stolonization in syllid annelids is a unique mode of reproduction among animals. During the breeding season, a structure resembling the adult but containing only gametes, called stolon, is formed generally at the posterior end of the animal. When stolons mature, they detach from the adult and gametes are released into the water column. The process is synchronized within each species, and it has been reported to be under environmental and endogenous control, probably via endocrine regulation. To further understand reproduction in syllids and to elucidate the molecular toolkit underlying stolonization, we generated Illumina RNA-seq data from different tissues of reproductive and nonreproductive individuals of Syllis magdalena and characterized gene expression during the stolonization process. Several genes involved in gametogenesis (ovochymase, vitellogenin, testis-specific serine/threonine-kinase), immune response (complement receptor 2), neuronal development (tyrosine-protein kinase Src42A), cell proliferation (alpha-1D adrenergic receptor), and steroid metabolism (hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2) were found differentially expressed in the different tissues and conditions analyzed. In addition, our findings suggest that several neurohormones, such as methyl farnesoate, dopamine, and serotonin, might trigger stolon formation, the correct maturation of gametes and the detachment of stolons when gametogenesis ends. The process seems to be under circadian control, as indicated by the expression patterns of r-opsins. Overall, our results shed light into the genes that orchestrate the onset of gamete formation and improve our understanding of how some hormones, previously reported to be involved in reproduction and metamorphosis processes in other invertebrates, seem to also regulate reproduction via stolonization.
    • The ‘Demange drawings’: known and unknown malacological contribu- tions of Victor Demange (1870-1940)

      Breure, ASH; Ablett, J (Cernuelle, 2016-09-01)
      In the Bavay archives a collection of drawings of Vietnamese land and freshwater snails is present, which have never been published. They originate from Victor Demange who had them made by a local raftsman. The drawings are here reproduced and some biographical data on Demange, and his contributions to malacology, are presented.
    • Descriptions of two new Australian genera of Anthicidae (Insecta: Coleoptera)

      Telnov, Dmitry (Baltijas Koleopterologijas Instituts/Baltic Institute of Coleopterology, 2018-12-23)
      Two new Australian Anthicidae genera, Australosteropes gen. nov. (Steropinae) and Sahulanthicus gen. nov. (Anthicinae: Anthicini) are described, diagnosed, and illustrated. Some critical morphological characters of these new groups and the subfamilies to which they belong are discussed. New combinations are made for the following 18 taxa: Australosteropes davidsonae (Armstrong, 1948) comb. nov. (from Macratria Newman, 1838), Sahulanthicus abundans (Lea, 1922) comb. nov., S. apicalis (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. baudinensis (Champion, 1895) comb. nov., S. brevicollis (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. cavifrons (Champion, 1895) comb. nov., S. crassipes (LaFerté-Sénectère, 1849) comb. nov., S. crassus (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. discoideus (Champion, 1895) comb. nov., S. immaculatus (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. inglorius (Lea, 1896) comb. nov., S. laticollis (MacLeay, 1872) comb. nov., S. luridus (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. monostigma (Champion, 1895) comb. nov., S. obliquefasciatus (King, 1869) comb. nov., S. permutatus (Pic, 1897) comb. nov., S. scutellatus (Lea, 1896) comb. nov. (all from Microhoria Chevrolat, 1877), and S. dilatipennis (Pic, 1900) comb. nov. (from Anthicus Paykull, 1798). Lectotype is designated for Sahulanthicus dilatipennis (Pic, 1900).
    • Designation of a new family group name, Tonzidae fam. nov., for the genus Tonza (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutoidea), based on immature stages of Tonza citrorrhoa

      Kobayashi, S; Matsuoka, H; Kimura, M; Sohn, J-C; Yoshiyasu, Y; Lees, David (European Journal of Taxonomy, 2018-06-12)
      The systematic position of Tonza Walker, 1864 is re-evaluated, based on the characteristics of immature stages and DNA barcodes. Larvae and pupae of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 are described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae of this species form a loose web among the leaves and branches of the host plant, Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz. (Putranjivaceae Endl.). The immature stages of Tonza exhibit four unique apomorphies including: in the larva, the prolegs on A5 and A6 absent, and the seta L2 on the A1–A8 very small; in the pupa, four minute knobs are positioned in the middle portion on abdominal segments V and VI; while its caudal processes possess a W-shaped spine with numerous minute spines. These characteristics clearly distinguish Tonza from other yponomeutoid families and hence, we propose a new family group name, Tonzidae Kobayashi & Sohn fam. nov., for the genus Tonza. Existing DNA barcode data suggest a relationship with Glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854. The family level status of Tonzidae fam. nov. provides a hypothesis that needs to be tested with larger molecular data.