• Habitat Configuration Alters Herbivory across the Tropical Seascape

      Swindells, KL; Murdoch, RJ; Bazen, WD; Harman, NW; Unsworth, RKF (Frontiers, 2017-02-28)
      There exists increasing evidence that top-down ecological processes such as herbivory are key in controlling marine ecosystems and their community structure. Herbivory has the potential to be altered by numerous environmental and ecological factors that operate at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, one such spatial factor is the influence of the marine landscape. We know little about how ecological processes such as herbivory change throughout the marine landscape and how the effects of these processes cascade. This is because most landscape scale studies observe species richness and abundance patterns. In terrestrial systems the landscape is well documented to influence ecological processes, but empirical evidence of this is limited in marine systems. In tropical seagrass meadows direct herbivory by parrotfish can be readily observed due to the clear hemispherical bite marks they leave on the seagrass. As with herbivory in other systems, this leaf consumption is thought to assist with leaf turnover, positively influencing leaf growth. Changes in its rate and extent are therefore likely to influence the characteristics of the plant. The faunal communities of seagrass meadows alter with respect to changes in the landscape, particularly with respect to connectivity to adjacent habitats. It might therefore be expected that a key ecological process such as herbivory will change with respect to habitat configuration and have cascading impacts upon the status of the seagrass. In the present study we examined indirect evidence of parrotfish grazing throughout the marine landscape and assessed this relative to plant condition. Seagrasses in locations of close proximity to mangroves were found to have double the amount of parrotfish grazing than sites away from mangroves. Evidence of herbivory was also found to be strongly and significantly negatively correlated to the abundance of plant attached epicover. The decreased epicover in the presence of elevated herbivory suggests increased leaf turnover. These results indicate that seagrass may have higher levels of ecosystem resilience in the presence of mangroves. Our research highlights how ecological processes can change throughout the marine landscape with cascade impacts on the resilience of the system.
    • Halioticida noduliformans infection in eggs of lobster ( Homarus gammarus ) reveals its generalist parasitic strategy in marine invertebrates

      Holt, C; Foster, R; Daniels, CL; van der Giezen, M; Feist, SW; Stentiford, GD; Bass, D (2018-05)
    • Halloween genes in panarthropods and the evolution of the early moulting pathway in Ecdysozoa

      Schumann, I; Kenny, NJ; Hui, J; Hering, L; Meyer, G (The Royal Society, 2018-09-12)
      Moulting is a characteristic feature of Ecdysozoa—the clade of moulting animals that includes the hyperdiverse arthropods and less speciose groups, such as onychophorans, tardigrades and nematodes. Moulting has been best analysed in arthropods, specifically in insects and crustaceans, in which a complex neuroendocrine system acts at the genomic level and initiates the transcription of genes responsible for moulting. The key moulting hormones, ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are subsequently synthesized from cholesterol ingested with food. Their biosynthesis is regulated by the Rieske-domain protein Neverland and cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by the so-called ‘Halloween’ genes. Ecdysone is then released into the haemolymph and modified into 20-hydroxyecdysone, which binds to the nuclear receptor EcR/USP and initiates transcription of the Early genes. As little is known about the moulting pathway of other ecdysozoans, we examined the occurrence of genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and the early moulting cascade across ecdysozoan subgroups. Genomic and transcriptomic searches revealed no Halloween genes in cycloneuralians, whereas only shadow (CYP315A1) is present in onychophorans and tardigrades, suggesting that the Halloween genes evolved stepwise in panarthropods. These findings imply that the genes which were responsible for the ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa are currently unknown.
    • Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment

      Newbold, T; Hudson, L; Arnell, AP; Contu, S; De Palma, A; Ferrier, S; Hill, SLL; Hoskins, AJ; Lysenko, I; Phillips, HRP; et al. (2016-07-15)
    • Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsoidea): first records of the brush-clawed shore crab from Great Britain

      Wood, C; Bishop, J; Davies, C; Delduca, E; Hatton, J; Herbert, R; Clark, P (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre, 2015-02-21)
      The brush-clawed shore crab is reported from the River Medway, Kent and the River Colne, Essex, England. These represent the first records of Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 from Great Britain. If H. takanoi becomes established in GB, it may pose a threat to populations of the native shore crab Carcinus maenas.
    • History of the discovery of the mode of transmission of yellow fever virus

      Clements, AN; Harbach, RE (Wiley, 2017-11-10)
      This essay documents and examines the historical circumstances and events surrounding the discovery of the mode of transmission of yellow fever virus in Cuba. Close scrutiny of the articles published by Walter Reed and his colleagues in 1900, 1901 and 1902 reveals their limitations as historic documents. Fortunately, other sources of information from that period survive in letters and documents written by individuals involved in the quest for the mode of transmission. Examination and comparison of those sources of information unveiled a fascinating story which reveals that misunderstandings engendered by published articles accorded merit where it was not fully due.
    • Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain

      Roy, HE; Peyton, J; Aldridge, DC; Bantock, T; Blackburn, TM; Britton, R; Clark, P; Cook, E; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Dines, T; et al. (Wiley, 2014-05-19)
    • How climatic variability is linked to the spatial distribution of range sizes: seasonality versus climate change velocity in sphingid moths

      Grünig, M; Beerli, N; Ballesteros-Mejia, L; Kitching, I; Beck, J (Wiley, 2017-07-04)
      Aim To map the spatial variation of range sizes within sphingid moths, and to test hypotheses on its environmental control. In particular, we investigate effects of climate change velocity since the Pleistocene and the mid‐Holocene, temperature and precipitation seasonality, topography, Pleistocene ice cover, and available land area. Location Old World and Australasia, excluding smaller islands. Methods We used fine‐grained range maps (based on expert‐edited distribution modelling) for all 972 sphingid moth species in the research region and calculated, at a grain size of 100 km, the median of range sizes of all species that co‐occur in a pixel. Climate, topography and Pleistocene ice cover data were taken from publicly available sources. We calculated climate change velocities (CCV) for the last 21 kyr as well as 6 kyr. We compared the effects of seasonality and CCV on median range sizes with spatially explicit models while accounting for effects of elevation range, glaciation history and available land area. Results Range sizes show a clear spatial pattern, with highest median values in deserts and arctic regions and lowest values in isolated tropical regions. Range sizes were only weakly related to absolute latitude (predicted by Rapoport's effect), but there was a strong north‐south pattern of range size decline. Temperature seasonality emerged as the strongest environmental correlate of median range size, in univariate as well as multivariate models, whereas effects of CCV were weak and unstable for both time periods. These results were robust to variations in the parameters in alternative analyses, among them multivariate CCV. Main conclusions Temperature seasonality is a strong correlate of spatial range size variation, while effects of longer‐term temperature change, as captured by CCV, received much weaker support.
    • How common is albinism really? Colour aberrations in Indian birds reviewed

      Van Grouw, H; Mahabal, A; Sharma, RM; Thakur, S (2016-09-01)
    • How has the environment shaped geographical patterns of insect body sizes? A test of hypotheses using sphingid moths.

      Beerli, N; Bärtschi, F; Kitching, IJ; Ballesteros-Mejia, L; Beck, J (Wiley, 2019-05-14)
      Aim: We mapped the geographical pattern of body sizes in sphingid moths and investigated latitudinal clines. We tested hypotheses concerning their possible environmental control, that is, effects of temperature (negative: temperature size rule or Bergmann's rule; positive: converse Bergmann rule), food availability, robustness to starvation during extreme weather and seasonality. Location: Old World and Australia/Pacific region. Methods: Body size data of 950 sphingid species were compiled and related to their distribution maps. Focusing on body length, we mapped the median and maximum size of all species occurring in 100 km grid cells. In a comparative approach, we tested the predictions from explanatory hypotheses by correlating species' size to the average environmental conditions encountered throughout their range, under univariate and multivariate models. We accounted for phylogeny by stepwise inclusion of phylogenetically informed taxonomic classifications into hierarchical random‐intercept mixed models. Results: Median body sizes showed a distinctive geographical pattern, with large species in the Middle East and the Asian tropics, and smaller species in temperate regions and the Afrotropics. Absolute latitude explained very little body size variation, but there was a latitudinal cline of maximum size. Species' median size was correlated with net primary productivity, supporting the food availability hypothesis, whereas support for other hypotheses was weak. Environmental correlations contributed much less (i.e. <10%) to explaining overall size variation than phylogeny (inclusion of which led to models explaining >70% of variability). Main conclusion: The intuitive impression of larger species in the tropics is shaped by larger size maxima. Median body sizes are only very weakly related to latitude. Most of the geographical variation in body size in sphingid moths is explained by their phylogenetic past. NPP and forest cover correlate positively with the body size, which supports the idea that food availability allowed the evolution of larger sizes.
    • How the temperate world was colonised by bindweeds: biogeography of the Convolvuleae (Convolvulaceae)

      Mitchell, TC; Williams, BRM; Wood, JRI; Harris, DJ; Scotland, RW; Carine, MA (2016-12)
    • iCollections

      Paterson, GLJ; Albuquerque, S; Blagoderov, V; Brooks, S; Cafferty, S; Cane, E; Carter, V; Chainey, J; Crowther, R; Douglas, L; et al. (2016-06-03)
      iCollections specimens
    • iCollections methodology: workflow, results and lessons learned

      Blagoderov, V; Penn, M; Sadka, M; Hine, A; Brooks, S; Siebert, D; Sleep, C; Cafferty, S; Cane, E; Martin, G; et al. (2017-09-25)
    • iCollections methodology: workflow, results and lessons learned

      Blagoderov, V; Penn, M; Sadka, M; Hine, A; Brooks, S; Siebert, D; Sleep, C; Cafferty, S; Cane, E; Martin, G; et al. (2017-09-28)
    • iCollections – Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural History Museum, London

      Paterson, G; Albuquerque, S; Blagoderov, V; Brooks, S; Cafferty, S; Cane, E; Carter, V; Chainey, J; Crowther, R; Douglas, L; et al. (2016-09-13)
    • Idalatry

      JENNER, RA
    • Identification and lectotypification of the Solanaceae from Vellozo's Flora Fluminensis

      Knapp, S; Barboza, GE; Romero, MV; Vignoli-Silva, M; Giacomin, LL; Stehmann, JR (2015-08-28)