• Käfer (Coleoptera) im Gebiet des Furkapasses, Kantone Uri und Wallis

      Germann, C; Geiser, M; Luka, H; Sprecher, E; Schatz, I (Swiss Entomological Society, 2015-01-01)
      Beetles (Coleoptera) in the region of the Furkapass (cantons Uri and Valais). – One hundred eleven species of beetles were identified in the region of the Furkapass (2300–2700 ma.s.l.). This species richness is high compared to that of similar biotopes in the Swiss Alps. The records of Psylliodes schwarzi Weise, 1900, Mycetoporus inaris Luze, 1901 and Cratosilis distinguenda (Baudi, 1859) on the northern side of the Alps are remarkable.
    • Käfer aus Lichtfängen am Monte San Giorgio bei Serpiano, Kanton Tessin (Coleoptera)

      Herger, P; Germann, C; Uhlig, M; Vogel, J; Geiser, M; Kirejtshuk, A (Swiss Entomological Society, 2015-01-01)
      Beetles from light traps at Monte San Giorgio near Serpiano, canton of Ticino (Coleoptera). − During a biodiversity study in southern Ticino, insects were regularly collected with light traps at Monte San Giorgio near Serpiano, 630 ma.s.l., from 1995 to 1997. In total, 6638 beetles were collected, representing more than 366 species from 56 families. The present article provides an overview of the Coleoptera recorded, among them one species new to Switzerland: Malthodes vincens Gredler, 1870. Twenty-two species are new to the canton of Ticino.
    • Laboratory based feeding behaviour of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Varunidae): fish egg consumption (De Haan, 1835)

      Webster, J; Clark, P; Morritt, D (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre, 2015-06)
      Dispersal of Eriocheir sinensis from its native habitat is a worldwide concern. As one of the most invasive species known, this crab causes significant disruption to foreign ecosystems. In particular, populations in the United Kingdom (UK) are increasing in number and E. sinensis has been reported from many river catchments. The ecological implications of this invasion are not fully understood. One aspect of concern lies in the potential for mitten crabs to predate fish eggs which, if realistic, could contribute to the decline of riverine populations. In this study, 100 mitten crabs from the River Thames were used in experimental feeding trials to 1) investigate foraging ability on a variety of fish eggs and 2) establish whether crab size affected foraging potential. Eggs ranged from 1–6 millimetres (mm) in diameter from one of four species of marine and freshwater fish; zebrafish, lumpfish, Pacific salmon and trout. Predation by crabs varied with egg type; crabs were capable of foraging 1mm zebrafish eggs, but the majority consumed eggs 2–6mm in diameter. The most attractive eggs were apparently lumpfish, where the median proportion consumed was 100%. Crab size did not appear to govern foraging potential, though variation was observed in the size range of juvenile crabs consuming the different eggs with the largest, salmon, being consumed by crabs of the broadest size range. E. sinensis does have the potential to predate on a range of fish eggs, and the results are used to infer the risk presented to specific groups of UK fish stocks.
    • Large reorganizations in butterfly communities during an extreme weather event

      De Palma, A; Dennis, RLH; Brereton, T; Leather, SR; Oliver, TH (2017-05)
    • A Late Miocene methane-seep fauna from Kalimantan, Indonesia

      Kiel, S; Reich, S; Renema, W; Taylor, JD; Wesselingh, FP; Todd, JA; Anon (Instytut Paleobiologii PAN.Warsaw, 2016-06-13)
    • Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide

      Gray, CL; Hill, SL; Newbold, T; Hudson, L; Börger, L; Contu, S; Hoskins, AJ; Ferrier, S; Purvis, A; Scharlemann, JP (2016-07-28)
    • Local extinctions of insular avifauna on the most remote inhabited island in the world

      Bond, AL; Carlson, CJ; Burgio, KR (Springer, 2018-08-13)
      The overwhelming majority of avian extinctions have occurred on islands, where introduced predators, habitat loss, disease, and human persecution have resulted in the loss of over 160 species in the last 500 years. Understanding the timing and causes of these historical extinctions can be beneficial to identifying and preventing contemporary biodiversity loss, as well as understanding the nature of island ecosystems. Tristan da Cunha (henceforth “Tristan”), the most remote inhabited island in the world, has lost three species from the main island since permanent human settlement in 1811—the Tristan Moorhen (Gallinula nesiotis), Inaccessible Finch (Nesospiza acunhae acunhae), and Tristan Albatross (Diomedea dabbenena). We used recently developed Bayesian methods, and sightings of mixed certainty compiled from historical documents, to estimate the extinction date of these three species from Tristan based on specimens. We estimate that all three species were likely extirpated from Tristan between 1869 and 1880 following a period of significant habitat alteration and human overexploitation, and only the albatross had a high probability of persistence when Black Rats (Rattus rattus) arrived in 1882, the previously assumed cause of extinction for all three species. Better estimates of extinction dates are essential for understanding the causes of historical biodiversity loss, and the combination of historical ecology with modern statistical methods has given us novel insights into the timing and therefore the causes of extinctions on one of the most isolated islands in the world.
    • Location of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis pathway and polyphenol oxidase genes in a new interspecific anchored linkage map of eggplant

      Gramazio, P; Prohens, J; Plazas, M; Andujar, I; Javier Herraiz, F; Castillo, E; Meyer, RS; Vilanova, S; Knapp, S (2014-12)
    • The London Workshop on the Biogeography and Connectivity of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

      Glover, AG; Dahlgren, T; Taboada, S; Paterson, G; Wiklund, H; Waeschenbach, A; Cobley, A; Martínez, P; Kaiser, S; Schnurr, S; et al. (2016-09-16)
    • Looking beyond the mountain: dispersal barriers in a changing world

      Caplat, P; Edelaar, P; Dudaniec, RY; Green, AJ; Okamura, B; Cote, J; Ekroos, J; Jonsson, PR; Löndahl, J; Tesson, SVM; et al. (2016-06)
    • Lycopodiella inundata: insights into plant-fungal associations in early vascular plants

      Kowal, J; Duckett, J; Jacob, A; Rimington, W; Bidartondo, M; Field, K; Schornack, S; Pressel, S (2017-03-07)
      Recent studies have revealed that extant basal vascular plants associate with a wide range of Mucoromycotina and/or Glomeromycota fungi, paralleling the same in non-vascular liverworts and hornworts. This dispels the long-held paradigm that these early diverging lineages harbour Glomeromycota exclusively. Endophytes belonging to both fungal lineages have also been reported, for the first time, in a Devonian plant (Horneophyton ligneri). Together these discoveries point to much more diverse plant-fungus interactions in early vascular plants than previously assumed, however our understanding of these remains limited. In order to gain further insights into these key partnerships, especially those involving the early diverging Mucoromycotina, we are developing the lycophyte Lycopodiella inundata as an experimental system. L. inundata sporophytes have been shown to harbour solely Mucoromycotina fungi but equally fundamental, the identity of its gametophyte endophyte remains unknown. Using molecular and cytological approaches, we confirm that young L. inundata sporophytes are colonized exclusively by Mucoromycotina and show that the cytology of colonisation - consisting of both inter- and intracellular phases - closely resembles that in Haplomitriopsida liverwort-Mucoromycotina partnerships and the corm of H. ligneri. Our current isolation, resynthesis and molecular studies will provide further insights into both host and fungi specificity.
    • Malacosporean myxozoans exploit a diversity of fish hosts

      Naldoni, Juliana; Adriano, EA; hartigan, ashlie; Sayer, C; Okamura, B (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2019-06)
      Myxozoans are widespread and common endoparasites of fish with complex life cycles, infecting vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. There are two classes: Myxosporea and Malacosporea. To date about 2500 myxosporean species have been described. By comparison, there are only five described malacosporean species. Malacosporean development in the invertebrate hosts (freshwater bryozoans) has been relatively well studied but is poorly known in fish hosts. Our aim was to investigate the presence and development of malacosporeans infecting a diversity of fish from Brazil, Europe and the USA. We examined kidney from 256 fish belonging variously to the Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae, Esocidae, Percidae, Polyodontidae, Serrasalmidae, Cichlidae and Pimelodidae. Malacosporean infections were detected and identified by polymerase chain reaction and small subunit ribosomal DNA sequencing, and the presence of sporogonic stages was evaluated by ultrastructural examination. We found five malacosporean infections in populations of seven European fish species (brown trout, rainbow trout, white fish, dace, roach, gudgeon and stone loach). Ultrastructural analyses revealed sporogonic stages in kidney tubules of three fish species (brown trout, roach and stone loach), providing evidence that fish belonging to at least three families are true hosts. These results expand the range of fish hosts exploited by malacosporeans to complete their life cycle.
    • Managed Bumblebees Outperform Honeybees in Increasing Peach Fruit Set in China: Different Limiting Processes with Different Pollinators

      Zhang, H; Huang, J; Vaissiere, BE; Zhou, Z; Gai, Q; Dong, J; An, J; Williams, PH; Dyer, AG (2015-03-23)
    • Managing a sustainable deep-sea 'blue economy' requires knowledge of what actually lives there

      Glover, AG; Wiklund, H; Chen, C; Dahlgren, TG (2018-11-27)
      Ensuring that the wealth of resources contained in our oceans are managed and developed in a sustainable manner is a priority for the emerging 'blue economy'. However, modern ecosystem-based management approaches do not translate well to regions where we know almost nothing about the individual species found in the ecosystem. Here, we propose a new taxon-focused approach to deep-sea conservation that includes regulatory oversight to set targets for the delivery of taxonomic data. For example, a five-year plan to deliver taxonomic and genomic knowledge on a thousand species in regions of the ocean earmarked for industrial activity is an achievable target. High-throughput, integrative taxonomy can, therefore, provide the data that is needed to monitor various ecosystem services (such as the natural history, connectivity, value and function of species) and to help break the regulatory deadlock of high-seas conservation.