• Observations of organic falls from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean

      Amon, Diva; Hilario, A; Arbizu, PM; Smith, CR (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016-10-04)
      Organic falls can form nutrient-rich, ephemeral hotspots of productivity and biodiversity at the deep-sea floor, especially in food-poor abyssal plains. We report here the first wood falls and second carcass fall recorded from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, an area that could be mined for polymetallic nodules in the future. A small cetacean fall in the mobile-scavenger stage likely recently arrived on the seafloor was observed, whereas most of the wood falls were highly degraded. There were multiple species in attendance at the wood falls including organic-fall specialists such as Xylophagaidae molluscs. Many of the taxa attending the carcass fall were known mobile scavengers that regularly attend bait parcels in the Pacific Ocean. These results further confirm that wood falls can occur at large distances (>1450 km) from major land masses, providing an adequate supply of wood to the abyssal seafloor for colonization by wood-boring molluscs and associated fauna. Organic falls may be regionally abundant and are likely to influence species and habitat diversity in the abyssal areas of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone.
    • Occurrence of Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cassava in Uganda

      Omongo, CA; Namuddu, A; Okao-Okuja, G; Alicai, T; van Brunschot, S; Colvin, J; Ouvrard, DNM (Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia, 2018-10-24)
      Cassava is a valued calorific source to millions of Africans who eat it daily and a vital staple for their food security. One of the key constraints to this crop is whiteflies which are both a vector of viral diseases and a direct pest. Although the African cassava whitefly is known to cause physical damage on cassava with considerable tuberous yield loss, a recent whitefly outbreak caused unusually severe damage, which prompted the current reported investigation. Molecular identification of whitefly adults sampled from the affected cassava field revealed the presence of a new whitefly species, Paraleyrodes bondari. This communication is the first report of the occurrence of P. bondari on cassava in Uganda.
    • The occurrence of metacercariae of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an unusual site, within the lateral line scales of cyprinid fishes

      Molnar, Kalman; Gibson, David I.; Cech, Gabor; Papp, Melitta; Deak-Paulus, Petra; Juhasz, Lajos; Toth, Norbert; Szekely, Csaba (2015-01-01)
    • Occurrence of Schistosoma bovis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: implications for urogenital schistosomiasis transmission monitoring

      Pennance, T; Ame, SM; Amour, AK; Suleiman, KR; Allan, F; Rollinson, D; Webster, BL (2018-11)
    • Occurrence of Schistosoma bovis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: implications for urogenital schistosomiasis transmission monitoring - CORRIGENDUM (vol 145, pg 1727, 2018)

      Pennance, T; Ame, SM; Amour, AK; Suleiman, KR; Allan, F; Rollinson, D; Webster, BL (Cambridge University Press, 2018-11)
    • Oil Vulnerability Index, Impact on Arctic Bird Populations (Proposing a Method for Calculating an Oil Vulnerability Index for the Arctic Seabirds)

      O’Hanlon, NJ; Bond, AL; James, NA; Masden, EA (Springer International Publishing, 2020-03-07)
      In recent decades, political and commercial interest in the Arctic’s resources has increased dramatically. With the projected increase in shipping activity and hydrocarbon extraction, there is an increased risk to marine habitats and organisms. This comes with concomitant threats to the fragile Arctic environment especially from oil, whether from shipping accidents, pipeline leaks, or sub-surface well blowouts. Seabirds are among the most threatened group of birds, and the main threats to these species at-sea are commercial fishing and pollution. Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, which can result in mass mortality events. Species are affected to a differing extent, therefore it is important to objectively predict which species are most at risk from oil spills and where. Assessing the vulnerability of seabirds to oil is achieved through establishing an index for the sensitivity of seabirds to oil – Oil Vulnerability Index (OVI). This incorporates spatial information on the distribution and density of birds as well as on species specific behaviours and other life history characteristics. This chapter focuses on the threat of oil to seabirds, especially in the Arctic, and how an OVI can be used to highlight which species are most at risk and where within the Arctic region.
    • Oldfield Thomas: In His Own Words.

      Portela Miguez, R (Natural Sciences Collections Association, 2019-03-28)
      Compilation of a series of non-academic articles written by Oldfield Thomas for the public press.
    • On Temminck's tailless Ceylon Junglefowl, and how Darwin denied their existence

      van Grouw, Hein; Dekkers, W; Rookmaaker, K (British Ornithologists' Club, 2017-12-11)
      Ceylon Junglefowl was described in 1807 by the Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. The specimens he examined were tailless (‘rumpless’) and therefore he named them Gallus ecaudatus. In 1831 the French naturalist René Primevère Lesson described a Ceylon Junglefowl with a tail as Gallus lafayetii (= lafayettii), apparently unaware of Temminck's ecaudatus. Subsequently, ecaudatus and lafayettii were realised to be the same species, of which G.stanleyi and G.lineatus are junior synonyms. However, Charles Darwin tried to disprove the existence of wild tailless junglefowl on Ceylon in favour of his theory on the origin of the domestic chicken.
    • On the front line of modern data-management and Open Access publishing: Two years of PhytoKeys – the fastest growing journal in plant systematics

      Kress, WJ; Knapp, S; Stoev, P; Penev, L (Pensoft Publishers, 2012-12-18)
      PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, openaccess outlet for plant biodiversity research (Penev et al. 2010a). The journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and since its launch continues to grow in reputation and volume.
    • On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae)

      Ribeiro-Silva, S; Knapp, S; Proença, CEB (2017-01-05)
    • On the Identity of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781, a Member of Malachiidae Misplaced in Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) and Consequent Taxonomical Changes in Atelechira Lacordaire, 1848

      Geiser, M; Bezdek, J (The Coleopterists Society, 2019-03-25)
      The type of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781 in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks at the Natural History Museum, London was examined. It turned out that this species is in fact not a member of Atelechira Lacordaire (Chrysomelidae: Clytrini), but rather a member of Hadrocnemus (Malachiidae) as Hadrocnemus aulicus (Fabricius, 1781), new combination. Hadrocnemus hilarus (Evers, 1987) may be synonymous with H. aulicus, but it is here provisionally maintained as a valid taxon pending availability of further material. Atelechira elegans (Thunberg, 1821) is restored as the valid name for the species previously referred to as A. aulica (auct., not Fabricius). A lectotype is designated for C. aulica. All examined types are illustrated, and comments on their distinguishing characters and distribution are added.
    • Open data and digital morphology

      Davies, TG; Rahman, IA; Lautenschlager, S; Cunningham, JA; Asher, RJ; Barrett, PM; Bates, KT; Bengtson, S; Benson, RB; Boyer, DM; et al. (2017-04-12)
    • The origin of evolutionary storytelling

      Jenner, R; Fusco, G (Padova University PressPadova, Italy, 2019-01)
      Phylogenetics emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a discipline dedicated to constructing descriptive and explanatory narratives that traced the evolutionary origins of taxa and traits. Because ancestors and evolutionary transformations are empirically inaccessible, phylogeneticists had no choice but to use their more or less informed imagination to gain access to this epistemic hinterland. The explanatory power of phylogenetic hypotheses resides in their ability to trace back traits to their evolutionary origins. Hypothetical ancestors therefore became important epistemic tools as they were deliberately equipped with characters that could function as suitable evolutionary precursors for traits of interest. I argue that the precursor potential of hypothetical ancestors therefore became the first, more or less objective, phylogenetic optimality criterion.
    • The origin of evolutionary storytelling

      Jenner, Ronald; Fusco, G (Padova University Press, 2019-01)
    • An overview of the tapeworms of vertebrate bowels of the earth

      Caira, JN; Jensen, K; Georgiev, BB; Kuchta, R; Littlewood, T; Mariaux, J; Scholz, T; Tkach, VV; Waeschenbach, A; Caira, JN; et al. (Lawrence, Kansas, 2017)
    • Oxamniquine resistance alleles are widespread in Old World Schistosoma mansoni and predate drug deployment

      Chevalier, Frédéric D; Le Clec’h, Winka; McDew-White, Marina; Menon, Vinay; Guzman, Meghan A; Holloway, Stephen P; Cao, Xiaohang; Taylor, Alexander B; Kinung'hi, Safari; Gouvras, Anouk N; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2019-10-25)
      Do mutations required for adaptation occur de novo, or are they segregating within populations as standing genetic variation? This question is key to understanding adaptive change in nature, and has important practical consequences for the evolution of drug resistance. We provide evidence that alleles conferring resistance to oxamniquine (OXA), an antischistosomal drug, are widespread in natural parasite populations under minimal drug pressure and predate OXA deployment. OXA has been used since the 1970s to treat Schistosoma mansoni infections in the New World where S. mansoni established during the slave trade. Recessive loss-of-function mutations within a parasite sulfotransferase (SmSULT-OR) underlie resistance, and several verified resistance mutations, including a deletion (p.E142del), have been identified in the New World. Here we investigate sequence variation in SmSULT-OR in S. mansoni from the Old World, where OXA has seen minimal usage. We sequenced exomes of 204 S. mansoni parasites from West Africa, East Africa and the Middle East, and scored variants in SmSULT-OR and flanking regions. We identified 39 non-synonymous SNPs, 4 deletions, 1 duplication and 1 premature stop codon in the SmSULT-OR coding sequence, including one confirmed resistance deletion (p.E142del). We expressed recombinant proteins and used an in vitro OXA activation assay to functionally validate the OXA-resistance phenotype for four predicted OXA-resistance mutations. Three aspects of the data are of particular interest: (i) segregating OXA-resistance alleles are widespread in Old World populations (4.29-14.91% frequency), despite minimal OXA usage, (ii) two OXA-resistance mutations (p.W120R, p.N171IfsX28) are particularly common (>5%) in East African and Middle-Eastern populations, (iii) the p.E142del allele has identical flanking SNPs in both West Africa and Puerto Rico, suggesting that parasites bearing this allele colonized the New World during the slave trade and therefore predate OXA deployment. We conclude that standing variation for OXA resistance is widespread in S. mansoni.