• Reading Trees

      Ebach, Malte C.; Williams, DM (2014-06-09)
    • Recommended best practices for plastic and litter ingestion studies in marine birds: Collection, processing, and reporting

      Provencher, JF; Borrelle, SB; Bond, AL; Lavers, JL; van Franeker, JA; Kühn, S; Hammer, S; Avery-Gomm, S; Mallory, ML (Canadian Science Publishing, 2019-05-09)
      Marine plastic pollution is an environmental contaminant of significant concern. There is a lack of consistency in sample collection and processing that continues to impede meta-analyses and largescale comparisons across time and space. This is true for most taxa, including seabirds, which are the most studied megafauna group with regards to plastic ingestion research. Consequently, it is difficult to evaluate the impacts and extent of plastic contamination in seabirds fully and accurately, and to make inferences about species for which we have little or no data. We provide a synthesized set of recommendations specific for seabirds and plastic ingestion studies that include best practices in relation to sample collection, processing, and reporting, as well as highlighting some “cross-cutting” methods. We include guidance for how carcasses, regurgitations, and pellets should be handled and treated to prevent cross-contamination, and a discussion of what size class of microplastics can be assessed in each sample type. Although we focus on marine bird samples, we also include standardized techniques to remove sediment and biological material that are generalizable to other taxa. Lastly, metrics and data presentation of ingested plastics are briefly reviewed in the context of seabird studies.
    • Reconstructing Colonization Dynamics of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni following Anthropogenic Environmental Changes in Northwest Senegal

      Van den Broeck, F; Maes, GE; Larmuseau, MHD; Rollinson, D; Sy, I; Faye, D; Volckaert, FAM; Polman, K; Huyse, T; Correa-Oliveira, R (2015-08-14)
    • Rediscovery and redescription of Centrodora damoni (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia, an egg parasitoid of Gonipterus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after nearly a century

      Ward, S; Valente, C; Gonçalves, C; Polaszek, Andrew (2016-04-18)
      Background Centrodora is a relatively common and widespread genus of morphologically diverse species, and is the most polyphagous genus known within the Aphelinidae, attacking eggs of insects in addition to pupae of Diptera and Hymenoptera, and nymphs of Hemiptera (Polaszek 1991). There are currently about 60 valid species in the genus, but given its morphological and biological diversity, some elevation of species-groups and subgenera to genus-level might be useful in future. Centrodora is represented in Australia by twelve species (Noyes 2015). New information Centrodora damoni (Girault) is redescribed and diagnosed from recently collected specimens reared from the eucalyptus weevil Gonipterus sp. near scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Tasmania, Australia. A lectotype is designated from a syntype specimen.
    • Rediscovery of the syntypes of California Quail Tetrao californicus Shaw, 1798, and comments on the current labelling of the holotype of California Condor Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797

      Prys-Jones, Robert; Russell, D; Wright, S (British Ornithologists' Club, 2014-12)
      The two syntypes of California Quail Tetrao californicus Shaw, 1798, were deposited in the British Museum in the 1790s, but were last documented as present in the late 1860s and had subsequently been presumed no longer extant. In 2004, they were re-discovered in Notingham Natural History Museum, to which they must have been inadvertently passed as ‘duplicates’ in the late 1800s, and have now been returned to the Natural History Museum, Tring, on extended renewable loan. During research regarding these Archibald Menzies specimens, new insight was gained into hitherto confusing reference details on the label of his type specimen of California Condor Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797
    • Reduction of eyes in last-instar beetle larvae: a special observation in Trictenotomidae, based on Trictenotoma formosana Kriesche, 1919

      Telnov, D; Hu, F-S; Pollock, DA; Lin, Z-R (2019-10-03)
      Recently, Lin & Hu (2018, 2019) unraveled the biology of Trictenotoma formosana Kriesche, 1919. For the first time since Gahan (1908) there is fresh immature stages material available for Trictenotomidae.
    • Relationships between mercury burden, sex, and sexually selected feather ornaments in crested auklet (Aethia cristatella)

      Bond, AL; Jones, IL (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-03-04)
      Individuals with higher contaminant burdens are expected to be in poorer physical health and be of lower individual body condition and energetic status, potentially resulting in reduced ornamentation or increased asymmetry in bilateral features. The degree and magnitude of this effect also would be expected to vary by sex, as female birds depurate contaminants into eggs. We tested for relationships among mercury in feathers, sex, and elaborate feather ornaments that relate to individual quality in crested auklets (Aethia cristatella), small planktivorous seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean. We found no relationships between mercury and the size of individuals’ forehead crest or degree of measurement asymmetry in auricular plumes, both of which are favoured by intersexual selection. Females had significantly greater mercury concentrations than males (females. 1.02 ± 0.39 μg/g; males, 0.75 ± 0.32 μg/g); but concentrations were below that known to have physiological effects, as expected for a secondary consumer. Sex differences in overwintering area for this long-distance migrant species (more females in the Kuroshio Current Large Marine Ecosystem than males) could be the reason for this seemingly counterintuitive result between sexes. Further research relating mercury burden to overwintering ecology and diet contents would build on our results and further elucidate interrelationships between sex, sexually selected feather ornaments and contaminant burden.
    • A remarkable new butterfly species from western Amazonia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)

      Huertas, B; Lamas, G; Fagua, G; Mallet, J; Nakahara, S; Willmott, K (ProAves Foundation, 2016-10-27)
      A distinctive new species of butterfly in the subtribe Euptychiina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), which is widespread throughout the upper Amazon in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, is here described. The species is provisionally placed in the genus Magneuptychia Forster, 1964, although this is likely to change as the higher level taxonomy of Euptychiina is resolved and the genus is reviewed in detail.
    • A replacement name for Philonthus colius Hromádka, 2016 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

      Barclay, Maxwell; Geiser, Michael (Nakladatelství Jan Farkač, Czech Republic & Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic, http://www.fld.czu.cz/studiesandreports, 2017-03-31)
      Philonthus colius Hromádka 2016, a primary junior homonym of Philonthus colius Hromádka 2008, is replaced with Philonthus lubomirhromadkai nom. nov.
    • Report on the 2015 workshop of the International Research Coordination Network for Biodiversity of Ciliates (IRCN-BC) held at Ocean University of China (OUC), Qingdao, China, 19-21 October 2015

      Warren, A; McMiller, N; Safi, L; Hu, X; Tarkington, J (Jagiellonian University Press, 2016-08-25)
      The 4th workshop of the IRCN-BC, entitled ‘Current Trends, Collaborations and Future Directions in Biodiversity Studies of Ciliates’ and convened by Weibo Song and colleagues at OUC, was attended by 53 participants from 12 countries. The workshop comprised oral presentations and posters grouped into three themes reflecting the three dimensions of biodiversity, namely: taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and genetic diversity. The main aims of the workshop were to provide a platform for the presentation of recent findings and to facilitate future collaborations for enhancing research and training.
    • Reproductive phenotype predicts adult bite-force performance in sex-reversed dragons (Pogona vitticeps )

      Jones, MEH; Pistevos, JCA; Cooper, N; Lappin, AK; Georges, A; Hutchinson, MN; Holleley, CE (Wiley, 2020-02-14)
      Sex‐related differences in morphology and behavior are well documented, but the relative contributions of genes and environment to these traits are less well understood. Species that undergo sex reversal, such as the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), offer an opportunity to better understand sexually dimorphic traits because sexual phenotypes can exist on different chromosomal backgrounds. Reproductively female dragons with a discordant sex chromosome complement (sex reversed), at least as juveniles, exhibit traits in common with males (e.g., longer tails and greater boldness). However, the impact of sex reversal on sexually dimorphic traits in adult dragons is unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of sex reversal on bite‐force performance, which may be important in resource acquisition (e.g., mates and/or food). We measured body size, head size, and bite force of the three sexual phenotypes in a colony of captive animals. Among adults, we found that males (ZZm) bite more forcefully than either chromosomally concordant females (ZWf) or sex‐reversed females (ZZf), and this difference is associated with having relatively larger head dimensions. Therefore, adult sex‐reversed females, despite apparently exhibiting male traits as juveniles, do not develop the larger head and enhanced bite force of adult male bearded dragons. This pattern is further illustrated in the full sample by a lack of positive allometry of bite force in sex‐reversed females that is observed in males. The results reveal a close association between reproductive phenotype and bite force performance, regardless of sex chromosome complement.
    • Resolving Difficult Phylogenetic Questions: Why More Sequences Are Not Enough

      Philippe, H; Brinkmann, H; Lavrov, DV; Littlewood, T; Manuel, M; Wörheide, G; Baurain, D (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011-03-15)
      In the quest to reconstruct the Tree of Life, researchers have increasingly turned to phylogenomics, the inference of phylogenetic relationships using genome-scale data (Box 1). Mesmerized by the sustained increase in sequencing throughput, many phylogeneticists entertained the hope that the incongruence frequently observed in studies using single or a few genes [1] would come to an end with the generation of large multigene datasets. Yet, as so often happens, reality has turned out to be far more complex, as three recent large-scale analyses, one published in PLoS Biology [2–4], make clear. The studies, which deal with the early diversification of animals, produced highly incongruent (Box 2) findings despite the use of considerable sequence data (see Figure 1). Clearly, merely adding more sequences is not enough to resolve the inconsistencies. Here, taking these three studies as a case in point, we discuss pitfalls that the simple addition of sequences cannot avoid, and show how the observed incongruence can be largely overcome and how improved bioinformatics methods can help reveal the full potential of phylogenomics.
    • A review of records of Downey Woodpecker in Britain

      van Grouw, Hein; Prys-Jones, Robert; Schofield, Philip (British Birds Ltd, 2020-04-15)
      Two historical records of Downy Woodpecker Dryobates pubescens in Britain are described. These records have not been formally reassessed for more than a century. A review of the records based on the available evidence is presented, which concludes that there is no support for Downy Woodpecker having occurred naturally in Britain.
    • A review of the alderfly genus Leptosialis Esben-Petersen (Megaloptera, Sialidae) with description of a new species from South Africa

      Price, B; Liu, X; de Moor, F; Villet, M (Pensoft, 2012-06-14)
      The monotypic South African alderfly genus Leptosialis Esben-Petersen, 1920 is reviewed and Leptosialis africana Esben-Petersen, 1920 is redescribed. In the process a new species of alderfly Leptosialis necopinata sp. n. from the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa is recognised and described. Within Sialidae the new species most closely resembles L. africana. A key to the two species of Leptosialis using both adult and larval characters is provided.
    • A review of the genus Chrysocryptus Cameron (Ichneumonidae: Phygadeuontinae), with description of a new species

      Broad, GR; Pham, NT; Achterberg, CV (National University of Singapore, 2019-02-22)
      The phygadeuontine genus Chrysocryptus (Ichneumonidae) is reviewed for the first time on the basis of ichneumonid collections in the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi (Vietnam), the Natural History Museum, London (UK), and the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (the Netherlands). A new species, Chrysocryptus brevis, is described from northern Vietnam. In addition, C. aureopilosus is recorded for the first time from Vietnam and from Indonesia (West Java). A key to all four known species of the genus Chrysocryptus is included.