• Field sampling is biased against small‑ranged species of high conservation value: a case study on the sphingid moths of East Africa

      Beck, J; Takano, H; Ballesteros-Mejia, L; Kitching, I; McCain, CM (Springer Verlag, 2018-08-23)
      The range size of species co-occurring in local assemblages is a pivotal variable in assessments of a site’s conservation value. Assemblages featuring many small-ranged species are given more priority than assemblages consisting mainly of wide-ranging species. However, the assembly of relevant information can be challenging and local range size distributions of tropical invertebrates are rarely available for conservation planning. We present such data for sphingid moths in East Africa, a highly diverse region of high conservation value. We compare geographic range size distributions based on field samples with predictions from modelled range map data. Using this system as a case study, we provide evidence for a systematic sampling bias when inferring average local range sizes from field data. Unseen species (i.e., species present but missed in local sampling) are often those with small ranges (hence, of high conservation value). Using an elevational gradient, we illustrate how this bias can lead to false, counterintuitive assessments of environmental effects on local range size distributions. Furthermore, with particular reference to sphingid moths in the study region, we show that current protected areas appear unrelated to the spatial distribution of species richness or average geographic range sizes at a local scale. We discuss the need to treat field sampled data with caution and in concert with other data sources such as probabilistic models.
    • First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO 2

      Field, KJ; Rimington, WR; Bidartondo, MI; Allinson, KE; Beerling, DJ; Cameron, DD; Duckett, JG; Leake, JR; Pressel, S (2015-01)
    • The first global deep-sea stable isotope assessment reveals the unique trophic ecology of Vampire Squid Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Cephalopoda)

      Golikov, A; Ceia, F; Sabirov, R; Ablett, J; Gleadall, I; Gudmundsson, G; Hoving, H; Heather, J; Pálsson, J; Reid, AL; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-13)
      Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903, is a widely distributed deepwater cephalopod with unique morphology and phylogenetic position. We assessed its habitat and trophic ecology on a global scale via stable isotope analyses of a unique collection of beaks from 104 specimens from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Cephalopods typically are active predators occupying a high trophic level (TL) and exhibit an ontogenetic increase in δ15N and TL. Our results, presenting the first global comparison for a deep-sea invertebrate, demonstrate that V. infernalis has an ontogenetic decrease in δ15N and TL, coupled with niche broadening. Juveniles are mobile zooplanktivores, while larger Vampyroteuthis are slow-swimming opportunistic consumers and ingest particulate organic matter. Vampyroteuthis infernalis occupies the same TL (3.0–4.3) over its global range and has a unique niche in deep-sea ecosystems. These traits have enabled the success and abundance of this relict species inhabiting the largest ecological realm on the planet.
    • The first next-generation sequencing approach to the mitochondrial phylogeny of African monogenean parasites (Platyhelminthes: Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae)

      Vanhove, Maarten PM; Briscoe, Andrew G; Jorissen, Michiel WP; Littlewood, T; Huyse, Tine (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-07-04)
      BACKGROUND:Monogenean flatworms are the main ectoparasites of fishes. Representatives of the species-rich families Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae, especially those infecting cichlid fishes and clariid catfishes, are important parasites in African aquaculture, even more so due to the massive anthropogenic translocation of their hosts worldwide. Several questions on their evolution, such as the phylogenetic position of Macrogyrodactylus and the highly speciose Gyrodactylus, remain unresolved with available molecular markers. Also, diagnostics and population-level research would benefit from the development of higher-resolution genetic markers. We aim to offer genetic resources for work on African monogeneans by providing mitogenomic data of four species (two belonging to Gyrodactylidae, two to Dactylogyridae), and analysing their gene sequences and gene order from a phylogenetic perspective. RESULTS:Using Illumina technology, the first four mitochondrial genomes of African monogeneans were assembled and annotated for the cichlid parasites Gyrodactylus nyanzae, Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus mbirizei (near-complete mitogenome) and the catfish parasite Macrogyrodactylus karibae (near-complete mitogenome). Complete nuclear ribosomal operons were also retrieved, as molecular vouchers. The start codon TTG is new for Gyrodactylus and for Dactylogyridae, as is the incomplete stop codon TA for Dactylogyridae. Especially the nad2 gene is promising for primer development. Gene order was identical for protein-coding genes and differed between the African representatives of these families only in a tRNA gene transposition. A mitochondrial phylogeny based on an alignment of nearly 12,500 bp including 12 protein-coding and two ribosomal RNA genes confirms that the Neotropical oviparous Aglaiogyrodactylus forficulatus takes a sister group position with respect to the other gyrodactylids, instead of the supposedly 'primitive' African Macrogyrodactylus. Inclusion of the African Gyrodactylus nyanzae confirms the paraphyly of Gyrodactylus. The position of the African dactylogyrid Cichlidogyrus is unresolved, although gene order suggests it is closely related to marine ancyrocephalines. CONCLUSIONS:The amount of mitogenomic data available for gyrodactylids and dactylogyrids is increased by roughly one-third. Our study underscores the potential of mitochondrial genes and gene order in flatworm phylogenetics, and of next-generation sequencing for marker development for these non-model helminths for which few primers are available.
    • First record of Acaenitinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from South America with description of a new species and a key to the world species of Arotes Gravenhorst

      Castillo, C; Saaksjarvi, L; Bennett, A; Broad, G (Pensoft, 2011-10-14)
      A new species of Acaenitinae, Arotes ucumari Castillo & Sääksjärvi, sp. n., is described and illustrated representing the first record of the subfamily from South America. The new species was collected from a premontane tropical rain forest in the Peruvian Andes at 1500 m. A key to the world species of Arotes Gravenhorst, 1829 is provided. The subspecies Arotes albicinctus moiwanus (Matsumura, 1912) is raised to species rank, Arotes moiwanus stat. n.
    • A first record of Clanis hyperion Cadiou & Kitching, 1990 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Bhutan, and a preliminary checklist of the hawkmoths of Mendrelgang, Bhutan

      Singh, IJ; Kitching, I (2014-01-26)
      An inventory of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) of Mendrelgang division of Tsirang District, Bhutan was undertaken between December 2011 and September 2012. A total of 27 species was recorded belonging to three subfamilies. The most notable was Clanis hyperion Cadiou and Kitching 1990. The present record extends the known distribution of C. hyperion to the eastern Himalaya, and significantly it is the first record of the species from northwest of the Brahmaputra River.
    • First report of ' Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in the United Kingdom in the psyllid Trioza anthrisci

      Sjölund, MJ; Clark, M; Carnegie, M; Greenslade, AFC; Ouvrard, DNM; Highet, F; Sigvald, R; Bell, JR; Arnsdorf, YM; Cairns, R; et al. (2017-12-31)
    • Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals

      Hartikainen, H; Humphries, S; Okamura, B (2014-03-01)
    • A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae)

      Wood, JRI; Williams, BRM; Mitchell, TC; Carine, MA; Harris, DJ; Scotland, RW (2015-06-18)
    • Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

      Särkinen, T; Gonzáles, P; Knapp, S (2015-01-13)
    • From text to structured data: Converting a word-processed floristic checklist into Darwin Core Archive format

      Remsen, D; Knapp, S; Georgiev, Teodor; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir (Pensoft Publishers, 2012-01-30)
      The paper describes a pilot project to convert a conventional floristic checklist, written in a standard word processing program, into structured data in the Darwin Core Archive format. After peer-review and editorial acceptance, the final revised version of the checklist was converted into Darwin Core Archive by means of regular expressions and published thereafter in both human-readable form as traditional botanical publication and Darwin Core Archive data files. The data were published and indexed through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) and significant portions of the text of the paper were used to describe the metadata on IPT. After publication, the data will become available through the GBIF infrastructure and can be re-used on their own or collated with other data.
    • From the Surface to the Deep-Sea: Bacterial Distributions across Polymetallic Nodule Fields in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Pacific Ocean

      Lindh, MV; Maillot, BM; Shulse, CN; Gooday, AJ; Amon, Diva; Smith, CR; Church, MJ (Frontiers, 2017-09-08)
      Marine bacteria regulate fluxes of matter and energy essential for pelagic and benthic organisms and may also be involved in the formation and maintenance of commercially valuable abyssal polymetallic nodules. Future mining of these nodule fields is predicted to have substantial effects on biodiversity and physicochemical conditions in mined areas. Yet, the identity and distributions of bacterial populations in deep-sea sediments and associated polymetallic nodules has received relatively little attention. We examined bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from samples collected in the water column, sediment, and polymetallic nodules in the Pacific Ocean (bottom depth ≥4,000 m) in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined at 99% 16S rRNA gene identity) affiliated with JTB255 (Gammaproteobacteria) and Rhodospirillaceae (Alphaproteobacteria) had higher relative abundances in the nodule and sediment habitats compared to the water column. Rhodobiaceae family and Vibrio OTUs had higher relative abundance in nodule samples, but were less abundant in sediment and water column samples. Bacterial communities in sediments and associated with nodules were generally similar; however, 5,861 and 6,827 OTUs found in the water column were retrieved from sediment and nodule habitats, respectively. Cyanobacterial OTUs clustering among Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were detected in both sediments and nodules, with greater representation among nodule samples. Such results suggest that vertical export of typically abundant photic-zone microbes may be an important process in delivery of water column microorganisms to abyssal habitats, potentially influencing the structure and function of communities in polymetallic nodule fields.
    • Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectes griseostriatus (De Geer) group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)–characterisation of B. emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936) and additional European data

      Angus, RB; Angus, EM; Jia, F; Chen, Z-N; Zhang, Y (2015-03-31)
      A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectes emmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectes emmerichi (Falkenström)), and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of B. emmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH) represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of B. emmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). The karyotype is most like that of B. macedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959), but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for B. griseostriatus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774) in the French Alps, B. g. strandi (Brinck, 1943) on the Kola Peninsula, B. multilineatus (Falkenström, 1922) in the Pyrenees and B. ibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007) in the Spanish Picos de Europa.