• Novel flaviviruses from mosquitoes: Mosquito-specific evolutionary lineages within the phylogenetic group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses

      Huhtamo, E; Cook, S; Moureau, G; Uzcátegui, NY; Sironen, T; Kuivanen, S; Putkuri, N; Kurkela, S; Harbach, RE; Firth, AE; et al. (2014-09)
    • Novel molecular approach to define pest species status and tritrophic interactions from historical Bemisia specimens

      Tay, WT; Elfekih, S; Polaszek, Andrew; Court, LN; Evans, GA; Gordon, KHJ; De Barro, PJ (Nature Research, 2017-03-27)
      Museum specimens represent valuable genomic resources for understanding host-endosymbiont/parasitoid evolutionary relationships, resolving species complexes and nomenclatural problems. However, museum collections suffer DNA degradation, making them challenging for molecular-based studies. Here, the mitogenomes of a single 1912 Sri Lankan Bemisia emiliae cotype puparium, and of a 1942 Japanese Bemisia puparium are characterised using a Next-Generation Sequencing approach. Whiteflies are small sap-sucking insects including B. tabaci pest species complex. Bemisia emiliae’s draft mitogenome showed a high degree of homology with published B. tabaci mitogenomes, and exhibited 98–100% partial mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene identity with the B. tabaci species known as Asia II-7. The partial mtCOI gene of the Japanese specimen shared 99% sequence identity with the Bemisia ‘JpL’ genetic group. Metagenomic analysis identified bacterial sequences in both Bemisia specimens, while hymenopteran sequences were also identified in the Japanese Bemisia puparium, including complete mtCOI and rRNA genes, and various partial mtDNA genes. At 88–90% mtCOI sequence identity to Aphelinidae wasps, we concluded that the 1942 Bemisia nymph was parasitized by an Eretmocerus parasitoid wasp. Our approach enables the characterisation of genomes and associated metagenomic communities of museum specimens using 1.5 ng gDNA, and to infer historical tritrophic relationships in Bemisia whiteflies.
    • Novel Vectors of Malaria Parasite in the Western Highlands of Kenya

      Stevenson, J; St. Laurent, B; Lobo, NF; Cooke, MK; Kahindi, SC; Oriango, RM; Harbach, RE; Cox, J; Drakeley, C (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012-09)
      The primary malaria control techniques, indoor application of residual insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets, are used on the basis of previously assumed key characteristics of behaviors of vectors of malaria parasites, i.e., resting and feeding indoors. Any deviation from the typical activities of a species related to exophagy (feeding outdoors) and exophily (living and resting outdoors) or to population replacement, followed by increased outdoor biting or resting, may undermine malaria control efforts. Identification of mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites has, for the most part, relied on the use of outdated morphologic keys and, more recently, species-diagnostic PCR. Cryptic species or subpopulations that exhibit divergent behaviors may be responsible for maintaining malaria parasite transmission, and without adequate discriminatory techniques, these vectors may be misidentified and their key behavioral differences overlooked.
    • The nutty world of hazel names – a critical taxonomic checklist of the genus Corylus (Betulaceae)

      Holstein, N; Tamer, SE; Weigend, M (European Journal of Taxonomy, 2018-02-28)
      Hazelnuts (Corylus L.) are the source of one of the globally most important nut crops. Despite their economic and cultural importance, taxonomic knowledge is poor, even the number of species is equivocal. Weak morphological differentiation, the inconsistent taxonomic treatment of horticultural selections and cultivars, and uncritical regional treatments generated a multitude of names. The situation is further complicated by an ancient history of use (at least 10 400 years), trade (at least 4000 years) and domestication (at least 2000 years). Here, we present an annotated checklist of the taxa in the genus Corylus based on an extensive literature review, electronic database research, and visits to some European herbaria. Full citations are given for all names, typifications are provided for the majority of them. Cultivars are listed if described under the rules of the ICN. We designate lectotypes and neotypes for 28 names, and discuss the identity of enigmatic C. maxima Mill., a taxon not known from the wild.
    • Occurrence of Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cassava in Uganda

      Omongo, CA; Namuddu, A; Okao-Okuja, G; Alicai, T; van Brunschot, S; Colvin, J; Ouvrard, DNM (Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia, 2018-10-24)
      Cassava is a valued calorific source to millions of Africans who eat it daily and a vital staple for their food security. One of the key constraints to this crop is whiteflies which are both a vector of viral diseases and a direct pest. Although the African cassava whitefly is known to cause physical damage on cassava with considerable tuberous yield loss, a recent whitefly outbreak caused unusually severe damage, which prompted the current reported investigation. Molecular identification of whitefly adults sampled from the affected cassava field revealed the presence of a new whitefly species, Paraleyrodes bondari. This communication is the first report of the occurrence of P. bondari on cassava in Uganda.
    • The occurrence of metacercariae of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an unusual site, within the lateral line scales of cyprinid fishes

      Molnar, Kalman; Gibson, David I.; Cech, Gabor; Papp, Melitta; Deak-Paulus, Petra; Juhasz, Lajos; Toth, Norbert; Szekely, Csaba (2015-01-01)
    • Occurrence of Schistosoma bovis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: implications for urogenital schistosomiasis transmission monitoring

      Pennance, T; Ame, SM; Amour, AK; Suleiman, KR; Allan, F; Rollinson, D; Webster, BL (2018-11)
    • Occurrence of Schistosoma bovis on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: implications for urogenital schistosomiasis transmission monitoring - CORRIGENDUM (vol 145, pg 1727, 2018)

      Pennance, T; Ame, SM; Amour, AK; Suleiman, KR; Allan, F; Rollinson, D; Webster, BL (Cambridge University Press, 2018-11)
    • Oil Vulnerability Index, Impact on Arctic Bird Populations (Proposing a Method for Calculating an Oil Vulnerability Index for the Arctic Seabirds)

      O’Hanlon, NJ; Bond, AL; James, NA; Masden, EA (Springer International Publishing, 2020-03-07)
      In recent decades, political and commercial interest in the Arctic’s resources has increased dramatically. With the projected increase in shipping activity and hydrocarbon extraction, there is an increased risk to marine habitats and organisms. This comes with concomitant threats to the fragile Arctic environment especially from oil, whether from shipping accidents, pipeline leaks, or sub-surface well blowouts. Seabirds are among the most threatened group of birds, and the main threats to these species at-sea are commercial fishing and pollution. Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, which can result in mass mortality events. Species are affected to a differing extent, therefore it is important to objectively predict which species are most at risk from oil spills and where. Assessing the vulnerability of seabirds to oil is achieved through establishing an index for the sensitivity of seabirds to oil – Oil Vulnerability Index (OVI). This incorporates spatial information on the distribution and density of birds as well as on species specific behaviours and other life history characteristics. This chapter focuses on the threat of oil to seabirds, especially in the Arctic, and how an OVI can be used to highlight which species are most at risk and where within the Arctic region.
    • Oldfield Thomas: In His Own Words.

      Portela Miguez, R (Natural Sciences Collections Association, 2019-03-28)
      Compilation of a series of non-academic articles written by Oldfield Thomas for the public press.
    • On Temminck's tailless Ceylon Junglefowl, and how Darwin denied their existence

      van Grouw, Hein; Dekkers, W; Rookmaaker, K (British Ornithologists' Club, 2017-12-11)
      Ceylon Junglefowl was described in 1807 by the Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. The specimens he examined were tailless (‘rumpless’) and therefore he named them Gallus ecaudatus. In 1831 the French naturalist René Primevère Lesson described a Ceylon Junglefowl with a tail as Gallus lafayetii (= lafayettii), apparently unaware of Temminck's ecaudatus. Subsequently, ecaudatus and lafayettii were realised to be the same species, of which G.stanleyi and G.lineatus are junior synonyms. However, Charles Darwin tried to disprove the existence of wild tailless junglefowl on Ceylon in favour of his theory on the origin of the domestic chicken.
    • On the front line of modern data-management and Open Access publishing: Two years of PhytoKeys – the fastest growing journal in plant systematics

      Kress, WJ; Knapp, S; Stoev, P; Penev, L (Pensoft Publishers, 2012-12-18)
      PhytoKeys was launched on the 1st of November 2010 as a novel, peer-reviewed, openaccess outlet for plant biodiversity research (Penev et al. 2010a). The journal quickly gained the support of the international botanical community and since its launch continues to grow in reputation and volume.
    • On the identity and typification of Solanum brasilianum Dunal (Solanaceae)

      Ribeiro-Silva, S; Knapp, S; Proença, CEB (2017-01-05)
    • On the Identity of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781, a Member of Malachiidae Misplaced in Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) and Consequent Taxonomical Changes in Atelechira Lacordaire, 1848

      Geiser, M; Bezdek, J (The Coleopterists Society, 2019-03-25)
      The type of Crioceris aulica Fabricius, 1781 in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks at the Natural History Museum, London was examined. It turned out that this species is in fact not a member of Atelechira Lacordaire (Chrysomelidae: Clytrini), but rather a member of Hadrocnemus (Malachiidae) as Hadrocnemus aulicus (Fabricius, 1781), new combination. Hadrocnemus hilarus (Evers, 1987) may be synonymous with H. aulicus, but it is here provisionally maintained as a valid taxon pending availability of further material. Atelechira elegans (Thunberg, 1821) is restored as the valid name for the species previously referred to as A. aulica (auct., not Fabricius). A lectotype is designated for C. aulica. All examined types are illustrated, and comments on their distinguishing characters and distribution are added.
    • Open data and digital morphology

      Davies, TG; Rahman, IA; Lautenschlager, S; Cunningham, JA; Asher, RJ; Barrett, PM; Bates, KT; Bengtson, S; Benson, RB; Boyer, DM; et al. (2017-04-12)
    • The origin of evolutionary storytelling

      Jenner, R; Fusco, G (Padova University PressPadova, Italy, 2019-01)
      Phylogenetics emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a discipline dedicated to constructing descriptive and explanatory narratives that traced the evolutionary origins of taxa and traits. Because ancestors and evolutionary transformations are empirically inaccessible, phylogeneticists had no choice but to use their more or less informed imagination to gain access to this epistemic hinterland. The explanatory power of phylogenetic hypotheses resides in their ability to trace back traits to their evolutionary origins. Hypothetical ancestors therefore became important epistemic tools as they were deliberately equipped with characters that could function as suitable evolutionary precursors for traits of interest. I argue that the precursor potential of hypothetical ancestors therefore became the first, more or less objective, phylogenetic optimality criterion.