• Solanum chenopodioides Lam. (Solanaceae) en la ciudad de Madrid

      Martínez Labarga, JM; García Guillén, E; Meliá Vaca, D; Knapp, S (Fotografía y Biodiversidad, 2017-07-23)
      RESUMEN: Se da a conocer la presencia de Solanum chenopodiodes Lam. en Madrid, por primera vez. Supone la única población conocida para el centro de la Península Ibérica. Se aportan fotografías tomadas en el lugar del hallazgo e imágenes de la descripción original y de la primera ilustración que se conoce de la especie. ABSTRACT: The presence of Solanum chenopodiodes Lam. is reported for Madrid for the first time. It seems to be the only known population in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Photographs of the record are published and images of the original description and the first known illustration of the species are shown.
    • Solanum medusae (Solanaceae), a new wolf-fruit from Brazil, and a key to the extra-Amazonian Brazilian Androceras/Crinitum Clade species

      Gouvea, YF; Stehmann, JR; Knapp, S (Pensoft, 2019-02-27)
      Solanum medusae sp. nov. is described from the Cerrado biome in the Serra da Canastra region, southwestern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to the common S. lycocarpum A.St.-Hil. (known as lobeira or wolf-fruit), but differs from it in habit and pubescence characters. We here describe this new taxon and discuss its morphology, some aspects of its ecology, affinities and distribution. Full specimen citations are provided, as well as illustrations, distribution map and a preliminary conservation assessment of the species. A key to all of the known extra-Amazonian Brazilian species of the Androceras/Crinitum clade is also provided to aid in their identification.
    • Species‐level image classification with convolutional neural network enables insect identification from habitus images

      Hansen, OLP; Svenning, J; Olsen, K; Dupont, Steen; garner, beulah; Iosifidis, A; Price, BW; Høye, TT (Wiley, 2019-12-24)
      1. Changes in insect biomass, abundance, and diversity are challenging to track at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic resolution. Camera traps can capture habitus images of ground-dwelling insects. However, currently sampling involves manually detecting and identifying specimens. Here, we test whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can classify habitus images of ground beetles to species level, and estimate how correct classification relates to body size, number of species inside genera, and species identity. 2. We created an image database of 65,841 museum specimens comprising 361 carabid beetle species from the British Isles and fine-tuned the parameters of a pretrained CNN from a training dataset. By summing up class confidence values within genus, tribe, and subfamily and setting a confidence threshold, we trade-off between classification accuracy, precision, and recall and taxonomic resolution. 3. The CNN classified 51.9% of 19,164 test images correctly to species level and 74.9% to genus level. Average classification recall on species level was 50.7%. Applying a threshold of 0.5 increased the average classification recall to 74.6% at the expense of taxonomic resolution. Higher top value from the output layer and larger sized species were more often classified correctly, as were images of species in genera with few species. 4. Fine-tuning enabled us to classify images with a high mean recall for the whole test dataset to species or higher taxonomic levels, however, with high variability. This indicates that some species are more difficult to identify because of properties such as their body size or the number of related species. 5. Together, species-level image classification of arthropods from museum collections and ecological monitoring can substantially increase the amount of occurrence data that can feasibly be collected. These tools thus provide new opportunities in understanding and predicting ecological responses to environmental change.
    • The Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculata: as dead as a Dodo, but what else do we know about it?

      van Grouw, Hein (British Ornithologists' Club, 2014-12-01)
      Described in 1783 and since then re-examined by many notable ornithologists, the single specimen known as the ‘Spotted Green Pigeon’ Caloenas maculata in the collections of the World Museum, Liverpool, has always been a mystery. No-one has ever doubted that it is a pigeon, and many researchers were convinced it was a distinct species. Although its taxonomic status remained unclear, it was officially declared extinct by BirdLife International in early 2008. Recent DNA analysis has now revealed that Spotted Green Pigeon can indeed be considered a distinct species within the extended Dodo Raphus cucullatus clade of morphologically very diverse pigeon species. Most members of this clade exhibit terrestrial or semi-terrestrial habits. Further morphological research into this unique specimen, initiated by the World Museum, demonstrates that Spotted Green Pigeon, in contrast to its fellow clade members, may have possessed strongly arboreal habits.
    • Stability in Lepidoptera names is not served by reversal to gender agreement: a response to Wiemers et al. (2018)

      van Nieukerken, EJ; Karsholt, O; Hausmann, A; Holloway, JD; Huemer, P; Kitching, IJ; Nuss, M; Pohl, GR; Rajaei, H; Rennwald, E; et al. (Pensoft Publishers, 2019-06-26)
      In a recent paper in ZooKeys, Wiemers et al. (2018) provided an updated list of European butterfly names. In this list the authors follow gender agreement for species names, when interpreted as adjectival in derivation, in contrast to the common practice among most lepidopterists. Here we comment on this aspect of the paper, and voice our concern that this reversal does not benefit the stability of Lepidoptera names and is, indeed, inimical to their stability. Modern zoological science needs the communities of taxonomists and users to agree on the names that are used to communicate information about the taxa we study and cherish. In this age, such collegiate acceptance is more important than ever, given that the number of users of scientific names has increased enormously. Agreement is particularly important when considering the numerous online databases, observation sites, Wikipedia, etc. Several global and local initiatives over the last several decades have begun to compile authoritative lists of taxonomic names to serve the community and build towards a greater stability, including Species 2000 / Catalogue of Life (Roskov et al. 2018; Roskov et al. 2019), Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF Secretariat 2019) and Fauna Europaea (de Jong et al. 2014; Fauna Europaea 2017). Unfortunately, the current (and likely future) funding situation for most of these projects is poor, to say the least, and populating these databases relies heavily on a diminishing number of taxonomists, who rarely receive recognition for their work. The Fauna Europaea database, which is of special importance as Europe’s main zoological taxonomic index, has suffered particularly, being an EU-supported project that was only funded by the European Commission between 2000 and 2004. Subsequently, updating was carried out at the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam (de Jong et al. 2014), first under the umbrella of the PESI project (PESI 2011; de Jong et al. 2015), then later without funding, until the Amsterdam museum was merged with Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden in 2011. Since then, the Fauna Europaea database has been run by the Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Berlin, Germany. Recently, however, updating has come to a stand-still, very much to the frustration both of taxonomists who wish to update their lists and of users who need an up-to-date and authoritative nomenclature. Given these circumstances, we enthusiastically applaud the initiative that several specialists of European butterflies have taken separately to publish an update for butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea) in an open access journal, to produce a new list for the use of the scientific community (Wiemers et al. 2018).
    • Straight-washing ecological legacies

      Mackay, AW; Adger, D; Bond, AL; Giles, S; Ochu, E (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-04)
      Scientists are human, and scientists are diverse. But this diversity is nothing unless people can be themselves while practising science. This should extend to acknowledging ‘hidden’ diversities of the scientists that changed our understanding of the world. This is important not only for historical accuracy but also because it provides role models for today’s diverse scientific communities.
    • Structural Color in Marine Algae

      Chandler, CJ; Wilts, BD; Brodie, J; Vignolini, S (2017-03)
    • Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

      Chandler, CJ; Wilts, BD; Vignolini, S; Brodie, J; Steiner, U; Rudall, PJ; Glover, BJ; Gregory, T; Walker, RH (2015-12)
    • Successful Blue Economy Examples With an Emphasis on International Perspectives

      Wenhai, L; Cusack, C; Baker, M; Tao, W; Mingbao, C; Paige, K; Xiaofan, Z; Levin, L; Escobar, E; Amon, Diva; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 2019-06-07)
      Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development, countries are making decisions according to their own needs. As a consequence of this lack of consensus, further dialogue including this cases analysis of the blue economy is even more necessary. This paper consists of four chapters: (I) Understanding the concept of Blue Economy, (II) Defining Blue economy theoretical cases, (III) Introducing Blue economy application cases and (IV) Providing an outlook for the future. Chapters (II) and (III) summarizes all the case studies into nine aspects, each aiming to represent different aspects of the blue economy. This paper is a result of knowledge and experience collected from across the global ocean observing community, and is only made possible with encouragement, support and help of all members. Despite the blue economy being a relatively new concept, we have demonstrated our promising exploration in a number of areas. We put forward proposals for the development of the blue economy, including shouldering global responsibilities to protect marine ecological environment, strengthening international communication and sharing development achievements, and promoting the establishment of global blue partnerships. However, there is clearly much room for further development in terms of the scope and depth of our collective understanding and analysis.
    • Sustaining Progress towards NTD Elimination: An Opportunity to Leverage Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programs to Interrupt Transmission of Soil-Transmitted Helminths

      Means, AR; Asbjornsdottir, K; Mwandawiro, C; Rollinson, D; Jacobson, J; Littlewood, T; Walson, JL; Lammie, PJ (2016-07-14)
    • Symbiosis, Selection, and Novelty: Freshwater Adaptation in the Unique Sponges of Lake Baikal

      Kenny, Nathan J.; Plese, Bruna; Riesgo, Ana; Itskovich, Valeria B. (Oxford Academic, 2019-06-27)
      Freshwater sponges (Spongillida) are a unique lineage of demosponges that secondarily colonized lakes and rivers and are now found ubiquitously in these ecosystems. They developed specific adaptations to freshwater systems, including the ability to survive extreme thermal ranges, long-lasting dessication, anoxia, and resistance to a variety of pollutants. Although spongillids have colonized all freshwater systems, the family Lubomirskiidae is endemic to Lake Baikal and plays a range of key roles in this ecosystem. Our work compares the genomic content and microbiome of individuals of three species of the Lubomirskiidae, providing hypotheses for how molecular evolution has allowed them to adapt to their unique environments. We have sequenced deep (>92% of the metazoan “Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs” [BUSCO] set) transcriptomes from three species of Lubomirskiidae and a draft genome resource for Lubomirskia baikalensis. We note Baikal sponges contain unicellular algal and bacterial symbionts, as well as the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium. We investigated molecular evolution, gene duplication, and novelty in freshwater sponges compared with marine lineages. Sixty one orthogroups have consilient evidence of positive selection. Transporters (e.g., zinc transporter-2), transcription factors (aristaless-related homeobox), and structural proteins (e.g. actin-3), alongside other genes, are under strong evolutionary pressure in freshwater, with duplication driving novelty across the Spongillida, but especially in the Lubomirskiidae. This addition to knowledge of freshwater sponge genetics provides a range of tools for understanding the molecular biology and, in the future, the ecology (e.g., colonization and migration patterns) of these key species.
    • Synopsis of the pelidnotine scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae, Rutelini) and annotated catalog of the species and subspecies

      Moore, MR; Jameson, ML; Garner, BH; Audibert, C; Smith, ABT; Seidel, M (Pensoft, 2017-04-06)
      The pelidnotine scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) are a speciose, paraphyletic assemblage of beetles that includes spectacular metallic species (“jewel scarabs”) as well as species that are ecologically important as herbivores, pollinators, and bioindicators. These beetles suffer from a complicated nomenclatural history, due primarily to 20th century taxonomic and nomenclatural errors. We review the taxonomic history of the pelidnotine scarabs, present a provisional key to genera with overviews of all genera, and synthesize a catalog of all taxa with synonyms, distributional data, type specimen information, and 107 images of exemplar species. As a result of our research, the pelidnotine leaf chafers (a paraphyletic group) include 27 (26 extant and 1 extinct) genera and 420 valid species and subspecies (419 extant and 1 extinct). Our research makes biodiversity research on this group tractable and accessible, thus setting the stage for future studies that address evolutionary and ecological trends. Based on our research, 1 new species is described, 1 new generic synonym and 12 new species synonyms are proposed, 11 new lectotypes and 1 new neotype are designated, many new or revised nomenclatural combinations, and many unavailable names are presented.
    • SYNTHESYS+ Virtual Access - Report on the Ideas Call (October to November 2019)

      Hardy, Helen; Knapp, S; Allan, Louise; Berger, F; Dixey, K; Döme, B; Gagnier, P-Y; Frank, J; Haston, E; Holstein, J; et al. (Pensoft Publishers, 2020-01-24)
      The SYNTHESYS consortium has been operational since 2004, and has facilitated physical access by individual researchers to European natural history collections through its Transnational Access programme (TA). For the first time, SYNTHESYS+ will be offering virtual access to collections through digitisation, with two calls for the programme, the first in 2020 and the second in 2021. The Virtual Access (VA) programme is not a direct digital parallel of Transnational Access - proposals for collections digitisation will be prioritised and carried out based on community demand, and data must be made openly available immediately. A key feature of Virtual Access is that, unlike TA, it does not select the researchers to whom access is provided. Because Virtual Access in this way is new to the community and to the collections-holding institutions, the SYNTHESYS+ consortium invited ideas through an Ideas Call, that opened on 7th October 2019 and closed on 22nd November 2019, in order to assess interest and to trial procedures. This report is intended to provide feedback to those who participated in the Ideas Call and to help all applicants to the first SYNTHESYS+Virtual Access Call that will be launched on 20<jats:sup>th</jats:sup> of February 2020.