• A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh

      Irish, SR; Al-Amin, HM; Alam, MS; Harbach, RE (2016-12)
    • A Review of the Occurrence of Bats (Chiroptera) on Islands in the North East Atlantic and on North Sea Installations

      Petersen, A; Jensen, J-K; Jenkins, Paulina; Bloch, D; Ingimarsson, F (Museum and Institute of Zoology at the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2014-06-01)
      The bats recorded from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, the Shetland Islands, the Orkney Islands, and North Sea installations are reviewed to the end of 2012. In total 12 species have been positively identified, while a considerable proportion of all records are sightings of unidentified bats. Eight of the species are European in origin and four originate from the New World. The largest number of species (8) has been recorded in Iceland, but the greatest number of individuals (180) has been found in Orkney. The bat invasion on the Faroe Islands in 2010 is without precedence, when 70 observations of a minimum of 45 individuals were noted. Most bat observations in the study area occurred in the autumn, with fewer in the spring. Most observations were of single animals, but there were also sightings of up to 12 individuals. There has been a marked increase in bat records in the past three decades. We discuss whether this is a real increase, or due to improved communications, increased public awareness, increased shipping, changes in weather patterns and/or the effects of climate change. All factors appear to be involved.
    • A revision of Peltariosilis Wittmer (Coleoptera: Cantharidae), a surprisingly diverse Amazonian radiation

      Biffi, G; Geiser, M (Universidade de São Paulo (USP), 2020-02-28)
      Peltariosilis Wittmer, 1952 is a South American Silinae genus characterised by the highly modified male pronotum and scutellum with a remarkable lamellar projection. Six species were previously recognised. The study of numerous specimens from previously unsampled localities and the revision of previously studied material shows that Peltariosilis is far more diverse than previously recognised. 15 species are here recognised as valid, nine of which are described as new: P. brancuccii, P. brunneoapicalis, P. cleidecostae, P. diversicollis, P. flavicornis, P. gracilicornis, P. major, P. orientalis and P. parviscutellaris spp. nov. A comparative study and new morphological terminologies are introduced for pronotum, scutellum and male genitalia. All Peltariosilis species are described and illustrated, including the first illustration of a female pronotum, and an identification key is provided. A map is given, including records of all known Peltariosilis, showing a distribution confined to the Amazonian subregion (Suriname, French Guiana, N Brazil, E Peru and NE Bolivia). The identity of the type species P. scutulata (Wittmer, 1952), hitherto considered as broadly distributed and highly variable, is addressed through study of their type series and additional specimens from widespread localities.
    • A revision of the Maechidiini Burmeister, 1855 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from the Indo-Australian transition zone, and the first record of the tribe west of Wallace’s Line

      Telnov, Dmitry (2020-10-19)
      Features of the Maechidiini (Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) genera Maechidius Macleay, 1819, Epholcis Waterhouse, 1875 and Paramaechidius Frey, 1969 are critically revised and a new synonymy is proposed: Maechidius = Epholcis syn. nov. = Paramaechidius syn. nov. A key to and an annotated checklist of Maechidiini from the Indo-Australian transition zone are presented for the first time. Thirty-five new species are described, namely Maechidius aiyura sp. nov., M. alesbezdeki sp. nov., M. awu sp. nov., M. babyrousa sp. nov., M. bintang sp. nov., M. boessnecki sp. nov., M. brocki sp. nov., M. caperatus sp. nov., M. ciliatus sp. nov., M. crypticus sp. nov., M. dani sp. nov., M. deltouri sp. nov., M. dendrolagus sp. nov., M. hamatus sp. nov., M. kazantsevi sp. nov., M. konjo sp. nov., M. lapsus sp. nov., M. legalovi sp. nov., M. leucopsar sp. nov., M. longipes sp. nov., M. mailu sp. nov., M. maleo sp. nov., M. merdeka sp. nov., M. miklouhomaclayi sp. nov., M. nepenthephilus sp. nov., M. owenstanleyi sp. nov., M. riedeli sp. nov., M. similis sp. nov., M. skalei sp. nov., M. sougb sp. nov., M. suwawa sp. nov., M. trivialis sp. nov., M. ursus sp. nov., M. weigeli sp. nov. and M. yamdena sp. nov. Six new synonyms are proposed: Maechidius Macleay, 1819 = Epholcis Waterhouse, 1875 syn. nov. = Paramaechidius Frey, 1969 syn. nov., Maechidius esau Heller, 1914 = M. setosus Moser, 1920 syn. nov. = M. setosellus Frey, 1969 syn. nov., Maechidius heterosquamosus Heller, 1910 comb. rest. = Paramaechidius clypeatus Frey, 1969 syn. nov. and Maechidius paupianus Heller, 1910 = M. arrowi Frey, 1969 syn. nov. The first records of Maechidiini from the Tanimbar Islands (Yamdena), Sangihe Islands (Sangir) and Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali) are documented, of which the latter two are the northern- and westernmost known records of Maechidius and of the tribe Maechidiini. Lectotypes are designated for 23 species. Fifteen new combinations are proposed and the original combination to Maechidius is restored for four species. Ecological data are presented for the first time for selected Papuan and Wallacean species. Type material of Wallacean and Papuan Maechidiini is depicted for the first time. A key to species is given. In total, 78 species of Maechidiini are confirmed for the Indo-Australian transition zone.
    • A revision of the Morelloid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in North and Central America andthe Caribbean

      Knapp, S; Barboza, GE; Bohs, L; Sarkinen, T (Pensoft Publishers, 2019-05-30)
      The Morelloid Clade, also known as the black nightshades or “Maurella” (Morella), is one of the 10 major clades within the mega-diverse genus Solanum L. The clade is most species rich in the central to southern Andes, but species occur around the tropics and subtropics, some extending well into the temperate zone. Plants of the group are herbaceous or short-lived perennials, with small white or purplish white flowers, and small juicy berries. Due to the complex morphological variation and weedy nature of these plants, coupled with the large number of published synonyms (especially for European taxa), our understanding of species limits and diversity in the Morelloid Clade has lagged behind that of other major groups in Solanum. Here we provide the second in a three-part series of revisions of the morelloid solanums treating the species occurring in North and Central America and the Caribbean (for the Old World see PhytoKeys 106, the third part will treat species of South America). Synonymy, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and common names and uses are provided for all 18 species occurring in this region. We treat 10 of these species as native, and eight as putatively naturalised, introduced and/or invasive in the region. We provide complete descriptions with nomenclatural details, including lecto- and neotypifications, for all species. Keys to all species occurring in the whole region and for each area within it (i.e., North America, Central America and Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean), illustrations to aid identification both in herbaria and in the field, and distribution maps are provided. Preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. Details of all specimens examined are provided in three Supplementary Materials files.
    • A revision of the Old World Black Nightshades (Morelloid Glade of Solanum L., Solanaceae)

      Sarkinen, T; Poczai, P; Barboza, GE; van der Weerden, G; Baden, M; Knapp, S (2018-07-25)
    • Rhizarian ‘Novel Clade 10’ Revealed as Abundant and Diverse Planktonic and Terrestrial Flagellates, including Aquavolon n. gen.

      Bass, D; Tikhonenkov, DV; Foster, R; Dyal, P; Janouškovec, J; Keeling, PJ; Gardner, M; Neuhauser, S; Hartikainen, H; Mylnikov, AP; et al. (2018-04-15)
    • Scratchpads 2.0: a Virtual Research Environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science

      Smith, V; Rycroft, S; Brake, I; Scott, B; Baker, E; Livermore, L; Blagoderov, V; Roberts, D (Pensoft, 2011-11-28)
      The Scratchpad Virtual Research Environment (http://scratchpads.eu/) is a flexible system for people to create their own research networks supporting natural history science. Here we describe Version 2 of the system characterised by the move to Drupal 7 as the Scratchpad core development framework and timed to coincide with the fifth year of the project’s operation in late January 2012. The development of Scratchpad 2 reflects a combination of technical enhancements that make the project more sustainable, combined with new features intended to make the system more functional and easier to use. A roadmap outlining strategic plans for development of the Scratchpad project over the next two years concludes this article.
    • Seabird breeding islands as sinks for marine plastic debris

      Grant, Megan L; Lavers, Jennifer L; Hutton, Ian; Bond, AL (Elsevier BV, 2021-02-16)
      Seabirds are apex predators in the marine environment and well-known ecosystem engineers, capable of changing their terrestrial habitats by introducing marine-derived nutrients via deposition of guano and other allochthonous inputs. However, with the health of the world's oceans under threat due to anthropogenic pressures such as organic, inorganic, and physical pollutants, seabirds are depositing these same pollutants wherever they come to land. Using data from 2018 to 2020, we quantify how the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Ardenna carneipes) has inadvertently introduced physical pollutants to their colonies on Lord Howe Island, a UNESCO World Heritage site in the Tasman Sea and their largest breeding colony, through a mix of regurgitated pellet (bolus) deposition and carcasses containing plastic debris. The density of plastics within the shearwater colonies ranged between 1.32 and 3.66 pieces/m<sup>2</sup> (mean ± SE: 2.18 ± 0.32), and a total of 688,480 (95% CI: 582,409-800,877) pieces are deposited on the island each year. Our research demonstrates that seabirds are a transfer mechanism for marine-derived plastics, reintroducing items back into the terrestrial environment, thus making seabird colonies a sink for plastic debris. This phenomenon is likely occurring in seabird colonies across the globe and will increase in severity as global plastic production and marine plastic pollution accelerates without adequate mitigation strategies.
    • Seasonal ingestion of anthropogenic debris in an urban population of gulls

      Stewart, LG; Lavers, JL; Grant, ML; Puskic, PS; Bond, AL (Elsevier BV, 2020-08-15)
      Gulls are generalist seabirds, increasingly drawn to urban environments where many species take advantage of abundant food sources, such as landfill sites. Despite this, data on items ingested at these locations, including human refuse, is limited. Here we investigate ingestion of prey and anthropogenic debris items in boluses (regurgitated pellets) from Pacific Gulls (Larus pacificus). A total of 374 boluses were collected between 2018 and 2020 in Tasmania. Debris was present in 92.51% of boluses (n = 346), with plastic (86.63%, n = 324) and glass (64.71%, n = 242) being the most prominent types. An abundance of intact, household items (e.g., dental floss, food wrappers) suggest the gulls regularly feed at landfill sites. In addition, the boluses are deposited at a roosting site located within an important wetland, thus we propose that the gulls may be functioning as a previously unrecognised vector of anthropogenic debris from urban centres to aquatic environments.
    • The second and third documented records of Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata in Brazil

      Carlos, Caio J; Daudt, Nicholas W; van Grouw, Hein; Neves, Tatiana (British Ornithologists' Club, 2017-12-11)
    • Sensitivity and Specificity of a Urine Circulating Anodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in Low Endemic Settings

      Knopp, S; Corstjens, PLAM; Koukounari, A; Cercamondi, CI; Ame, SM; Ali, SM; de Dood, CJ; Mohammed, KA; Utzinger, J; Rollinson, D; et al. (2015-05-14)
    • Sex biases in bird and mammal natural history collections.

      Cooper, N; Bond, AL; Davis, JL; Portela Miguez, R; Tomsett, L; Helgen, Kristofer (Royal Society, 2019-10-23)
      Natural history specimens are widely used across ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Although biological sex may influence all of these areas, it is often overlooked in large-scale studies using museum specimens. If collections are biased towards one sex, studies may not be representative of the species. Here, we investigate sex ratios in over two million bird and mammal specimen records from five large international museums. We found a slight bias towards males in birds (40% females) and mammals (48% females), but this varied among orders. The proportion of female specimens has not significantly changed in 130 years, but has decreased in species with showy male traits like colourful plumage and horns. Body size had little effect. Male bias was strongest in name-bearing types; only 27% of bird and 39% of mammal types were female. These results imply that previous studies may be impacted by undetected male bias, and vigilance is required when using specimen data, collecting new specimens and designating types.
    • Sexual and geographic dimorphism in northern rockhopper penguins breeding in the South Atlantic Ocean

      Steinfurth, A; Booth, JM; White, J; Bond, AL; McQuaid, CD (Inter-Research Science Center, 2019-08-22)
      The Endangered northern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes moseleyi, like all penguins, is monomorphic, making sex determination of individuals in the field challenging. We examined the degree of sexual size dimorphism of adult birds across the species’ breeding range in the Atlantic Ocean and developed discriminant functions (DF) to predict individuals’ sex using morphometric measurements. We found significant site-specific differences in both bill length and bill depth, with males being the larger sex on each island. Across all islands, bill length contributed 78% to dissimilarity between sexes. Penguins on Gough Island had significantly longer bills, whilst those from Tristan da Cunha had the deepest. Island-specific DFs correctly classified 82-94% of individuals, and all functions performed significantly better than chance. The model for Nightingale Island correctly classified the greatest proportion of individuals (94-95%), while that for Tristan da Cunha performed the poorest (80-82%). A discriminant function derived from all sites accurately sexed 86-88% of northern rockhopper penguins achieving similar accuracy to island-specific functions. While molecular techniques conclusively determine an individual’s sex, morphometric measurements can provide a reliable estimate with close to 90% accuracy using a method that is less invasive and requires little technical expertise. Sexing is an important tool for meaningful interpretation of ecological data. Consideration of sex-specific differences in future studies will aid investigation of a potential sex-dependent vulnerability in this Endangered species.