• Two new species of Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing Aleurolobus rhododendri Takahashi and Dialeuropora decempunctata (Quaintance & Baker) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Taiwan

      Ward, S; Shih, YT; Ko, C-C; Polaszek, Andrew (2016-06-07)
      Background: Species of Eretmocerus Haldeman develop as primary ecto-endoparasites of whiteflies (Rose and Rosen 1992). Currently, the genus Eretmocerus comprises 86 species worldwide, of which 11 species have been previously recorded from Taiwan (Shih et al. 2015). Despite having been recently revised for Taiwan, two new species are here added to the Taiwan fauna. New information: Two new species, Eretmocerus garrywardi Ward sp. nov. and Eretmocerus liangyihchoui Shih sp. nov. found parasitizing Aleurolobus rhododendri Takahashi and Dialeuropora decempunctata respectively, are described. A key to females of Eretmocerus species occurring in Taiwan is provided.
    • Two new species of freshwater crabs from the highlands of northern Uganda, East Africa and a redescription of Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935) stat. rev. from Mount Kadam (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)

      Cumberlidge, N; Clark, PF (2016-03-17)
      Two new species of potamonautid freshwater crabs are described from the Imatong Mountains and Mount Moroto in northern Uganda, East Africa, and a third highland species, Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935) stat. rev. from Mount Kadam is re-diagnosed based on examination of the holotype. All three species are endemic to a different mountain range and their collection localities indicate a distinct preference for higher altitudes. Diagnoses, illustrations and distribution maps are provided for these taxa, and they are compared to similar species from the region. The conservation status of all three species is discussed.
    • Two new species of genus Ateleute Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae) with a key to the Oriental species

      Sheng, M-L; Broad, G; Sun, S-P (Pensoft, 2011-10-28)
      Three species of Ateleute Förster 1869 belonging to the tribe Cryptini of the subfamily Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), collected from Jiangxi Province, China, are reported, of which two are new for science: Ateleute ferruginea Sheng, Broad & Sun, sp. n. and A. zixiensis Sheng, Broad & Sun, sp. n. One, A. densistriata (Uchida, 1955), was previously known from China and Japan. A key to the species of genus Ateleute known in the Oriental Region is provided.
    • Two new species of Sympagella (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Rossellidae) collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, East Pacific

      HERZOG, S; Amon, DJ; Smith, CR; JANUSSEN, D (Biotaxa, 2018-08-31)
      Two new Hexactinellida species from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the East Pacific Ocean are described. They are the first described representatives of the genus Sympagella in this region. The new sponges were collected in 2013 during the ABYSSLINE Project´s first cruise, AB01, on board the RV Melville. The CCZ is known for its polymetallic nodules but megafaunal biodiversity is still poorly understood. Our findings suggest that the poriferan fauna of the eastern CCZ is both species rich and inadequately known, and that substantially more sampling and taxonomic studies of the CCZ sponge fauna are required to establish a megafaunal biogeography and evaluate potential extinction risks resulting from polymetallic-nodule mining.
    • Two new species of the genus Cylindrophis Wagler, 1828 (Squamata: Cylindrophiidae) from Southeast Asia

      Amarashinghe, AAT; Campbell, P; Hallermann, J; Sidik, I; Supriatna, J; Ineich, I (Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 2015-06-10)
    • Two species of Caiusa Surcouf (Diptera: Calliphoridae) new to India, with data on larval behaviour and morphology.

      Banerjee, A; Rognes, K; Whitmore, D (2018)
      Caiusa Surcouf (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an Old World genus of blow flies, the larvae of which feed on egg masses in the foam nests of various species of rhacophorid tree frogs. Here, we provide the first records for India (West Bengal, Eastern India) of Caiusa coomani Séguy, 1948 and C. karrakerae Rognes, 2015, together with new information on the behaviour and morphology of their larvae. Active surface swimming to disperse from infested nests is documented in blow fly larvae for the first time, as is the presence of a large internal air sac presumably acting as a floating aid. Chiromantis simus (Annandale, 1915) (Anura: Rhacophoridae) egg masses are first recorded as a feeding substrate of Caiusa larvae.
    • The type specimens and type localities of the orangutans, genus Pongo Lacépède, 1799 (Primates: Hominidae)

      Brandon-Jones, D; Groves, CP; Jenkins, Paulina (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-20)
      Uncertain type localities undermine orangutan nomenclature. Bequeathed to the British Museum, the holotype of Pongo pygmaeus, according to Hans Sloane’s catalogue, came from Borneo and died in China. The historical evidence makes Banjarmasin its most probable type locality. William Montgomerie, Assistant Surgeon at Singapore from 1819-1827, and Senior Surgeon from 1832, supplied the holotype of Simia morio. In 1836 an adult female orangutan reached Singapore alive from Pontianak, Borneo. The holotypes of S. morio, S. hendrikzii, S. straussii and P[ithecus] owenii probably had the same origin, as pirate attacks endangered visits to other Bornean coasts. Absent from Brunei and north Sarawak, Malaysia, throughout the Holocene, orangutans occur there only as Pleistocene subfossils at Niah. Pan vetus (the Piltdown mandible) probably came from Paku, Sarawak. We identify Pongo borneo Lacépède, 1799 as an objective senior synonym of P. wurmbii Tiedemann, 1808, correcting its type locality from Sukadana to near Pontianak. This is the earliest name for the western subspecies (previously thought nominotypical) unless Pithecus curtus, probably from the Sadong River, Sarawak, represents a separate subspecies. If so, the name Pongo borneo would transfer to the southern population west of the Kahayan River, genetically distinguished at species level from the Sumatran orangutan, P. abelii.
    • Uncovering Cryptic Parasitoid Diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

      Kenyon, SG; Buerki, S; Hansson, C; Alvarez, N; Benrey, B; Ballhorn, D (2015-09-09)
    • Uncovering the sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion by shearwaters using fatty acid analysis.

      Puskic, PS; Lavers, JL; Adams, LR; Grünenwald, M; Hutton, I; Bond, AL (Oxford Academic, 2019-05-16)
      Marine plastic pollution is increasing exponentially, impacting an expanding number of taxa each year across all trophic levels. Of all bird groups, seabirds display the highest plastic ingestion rates and are regarded as sentinels of pollution within their foraging regions. The consumption of plastic contributes to sub-lethal impacts (i.e. morbidity, starvation) in a handful of species. Additional data on these sub-lethal effects are needed urgently to better understand the scope and severity of the plastics issue. Here we explore the application of fatty acid (FA) analysis as a novel tool to investigate sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion on seabird body condition and health. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 37 individual FAs within the adipose, breast muscle and liver of flesh-footed (Ardenna carneipes) and short-tailed (Ardenna tenuirostris) shearwaters. We found high amounts of FA 16:0, 18:0, 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid), 22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid) and 18:1n9 in both species; however, the overall FA composition of the two species differed significantly. In flesh-footed shearwaters, high amounts of saturated and mono-unsaturated FAs (needed for fast and slow release energy, respectively) in the adipose and muscle tissues were related to greater bird body mass. While total FAs were not related to the amount of plastic ingested in either species, these data are a valuable contribution to the limited literature on FAs in seabirds. We encourage studies to explore other analytical tools to detect these sub-lethal impacts of plastic.
    • UniEuk : Time to Speak a Common Language in Protistology!

      Berney, C; Ciuprina, A; Bender, S; Brodie, J; Edgcomb, V; Kim, E; Rajan, J; Parfrey, LW; Adl, S; Audic, S; et al. (Wiley, 2017-03-24)
      Universal taxonomic frameworks have been critical tools to structure the fields of botany, zoology, mycology, and bacteriology as well as their large research communities. Animals, plants, and fungi have relatively solid, stable morpho‐taxonomies built over the last three centuries, while bacteria have been classified for the last three decades under a coherent molecular taxonomic framework. By contrast, no such common language exists for microbial eukaryotes, even though environmental ‘‐omics’ surveys suggest that protists make up most of the organismal and genetic complexity of our planet's ecosystems! With the current deluge of eukaryotic meta‐omics data, we urgently need to build up a universal eukaryotic taxonomy bridging the protist ‐omics age to the fragile, centuries‐old body of classical knowledge that has effectively linked protist taxa to morphological, physiological, and ecological information. UniEuk is an open, inclusive, community‐based and expert‐driven international initiative to build a flexible, adaptive universal taxonomic framework for eukaryotes. It unites three complementary modules, EukRef, EukBank, and EukMap, which use phylogenetic markers, environmental metabarcoding surveys, and expert knowledge to inform the taxonomic framework. The UniEuk taxonomy is directly implemented in the European Nucleotide Archive at EMBL‐EBI, ensuring its broad use and long‐term preservation as a reference taxonomy for eukaryotes.
    • Unifying European Biodiversity Informatics (BioUnify)

      Koureas, D; Hardisty, A; Vos, R; Agosti, D; Arvanitidis, C; Bogatencov, P; Buttigieg, PL; de Jong, Y; Horvath, F; Gkoutos, G; et al. (2016-01-19)
    • The unknown planktonic foraminiferal pioneer Henry A. Buckley and his collection at The Natural History Museum, London

      Rillo, MC; Whittaker, J; Ezard, THG; Purvis, A; Henderson, AS; Stukins, S; Giles Miller, C (2016-12-22)
    • Unusual coloration of a Hairy woodpecker from Oregon

      Helm, SR; Stemmer, R; van Grouw, Hein (Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, 2011-03-01)
    • An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance

      Trari, B; Dakki, M; Harbach, RE (Society for Vector Ecology, 2017-06)
      An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty‐three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed.
    • An urban Blitz with a twist: rapid biodiversity assessment using aquatic environmental DNA

      Hupało, K; Majaneva, M; Czachur, MV; Sire, L; Marquina, D; Lijtmaer, DA; Ivanov, V; Leidenberger, S; Čiampor, F; Čiamporová‐Zaťovičová, Z; et al. (Wiley, 2020-10-24)
      As global biodiversity declines, there is an increasing need to create an educated and engaged society. Having people of all ages participate in measuring biodiversity where they live helps to create awareness. Recently, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) for biodiversity surveys has gained momentum. Here, we explore whether sampling eDNA and sequencing it can be used as a means of rapidly surveying urban biodiversity for educational purposes. We sampled 2 × 1 L of water from each of 15 locations in the city of Trondheim, Norway, including a variety of freshwater, marine, and brackish habitats. DNA was extracted, amplified in triplicate targeting the barcoding fragment of COI gene, and sequenced. The obtained data were analyzed on the novel mBRAVE platform, an online open‐access software and computing resource. The water samples were collected in 2 days by two people, and the laboratory analysis was completed in 5 days by one person. Overall, we detected the presence of 506 BINs identified as belonging to 435 taxa, representing at least 265 putative species. On average, only 5.4% of the taxa were shared among six replicates per site. Based on the observed diversity, three distinct clusters were detected and related to the geographic distribution of sites. There were some taxa shared between the habitats, with a substantial presence of terrestrial biota. Here we propose a new form of BioBlitz, where with noninvasive sampling effort combined with swift processing and straightforward online analyses, hundreds of species can be detected. Thus, using eDNA analysis of water is useful for rapid biodiversity surveys and valuable for educational purposes. We show that rapid eDNA surveys, combined with openly available services and software, can be used as an educational tool to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity.
    • Urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon: An epidemiological update at Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto crater lakes assessing prospects for intensified control interventions

      Campbell, SJ; Stothard, JR; O’Halloran, F; Sankey, D; Durant, T; Ombede, DE; Chuinteu, GD; Webster, BL; Cunningham, L; LaCourse, EJ; et al. (2017-02-27)
    • Urogenital schistosomiasis transmission on Unguja Island, Zanzibar: characterisation of persistent hot-spots

      Pennance, T; Person, B; Muhsin, MA; Khamis, AN; Muhsin, J; Khamis, IS; Mohammed, KA; Kabole, F; Rollinson, D; Knopp, S (2016-12)
    • The use of anthropogenic marine debris as a nesting material by brown boobies (Sula leucogaster)

      Grant, ML; Lavers, JL; Stuckenbrock, S; Sharp, PB; Bond, AL (Elsevier, 2018-10-11)
      Marine debris is pervasive worldwide, and affects biota negatively. We compared the characteristics of debris incorporated within brown booby (Sula leucogaster) nests throughout their pantropical distribution by assessing the type, colour and mass of debris items within nests and in beach transects at 18 sites, to determine if nests are indicators of the amount of debris in local marine environments. Debris was present in 14.4% of nests surveyed, with the proportion of nests with debris varying among sites (range: 0–100%). There was minimal overlap between the type or colour of debris found in nests and on adjacent beaches at individual sites. This suggests that brown boobies do not select debris uniformly across their distribution. We propose that the nests of brown boobies can be used as a sentinel of marine debris pollution of their local environment.
    • Using 454 technology for long-PCR based sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome from single Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda)

      Jex, AR; Hu, M; Littlewood, T; Waeschenbach, A; Gasser, RB (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2008-01-11)
      Background: Mitochondrial (mt) genomes represent a rich source of molecular markers for a range of applications, including population genetics, systematics, epidemiology and ecology. In the present study, we used 454 technology (or the GS20, massively parallel picolitre reactor platform) to determine the complete mt genome of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae), a parasite of substantial agricultural, veterinary and economic significance. We validate this approach by comparison with mt sequences from publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic survey sequence (GSS) data sets. Results: The complete mt genome of Haemonchus contortus was sequenced directly from longPCR amplified template utilizing genomic DNA (~20–40 ng) from a single adult male using 454 technology. A single contig was assembled and compared against mt sequences mined from publicly available EST (NemBLAST) and GSS datasets. The comparison demonstrated that the 454 technology platform is reliable for the sequencing of AT-rich mt genomes from nematodes. The mt genome sequenced for Haemonchus contortus was 14,055 bp in length and was highly AT-rich (78.1%). In accordance with other chromadorean nematodes studied to date, the mt genome of H. contortus contained 36 genes (12 protein coding, 22 tRNAs, rrnL and rrnS) and was similar in structure, size and gene arrangement to those characterized previously for members of the Strongylida. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the utility of 454 technology for the rapid determination of mt genome sequences from tiny amounts of DNA and reveals a wealth of mt genomic data in current databases available for mining. This approach provides a novel platform for high-throughput sequencing of mt genomes from nematodes and other organisms.