• Traumatic myiasis in farmed animals caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in southern Italy (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

      Bonacci, T; Curia, G; Leoncini, R; Whitmore, D (PAGEpress, 2017-06-30)
      Ten herds of sheep and goats (455 heads) were inspected for the presence of traumatic myiasis between May and September 2013 in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, southern Italy. Nine cases were discovered in sheep, goats and a sheepdog. Infested body sites included external genitalia, wounds (sheep and sheepdog) and hooves (goats). Larvae were removed from the infested body areas and reared to adult stage in the laboratory. Both the larvae and the adults were identified as belonging to the Mediterranean screwworm fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), an obligatory parasite of humans and warm-blooded vertebrates. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of wohlfahrtiosis in sheep and goats to be reported from Calabria. The infested animals were living outdoors in spring and summer, and enclosed in sheds during the autumn and winter months. Observed effects of the myiases included severely impeded walking and tissue damage. Wohlfahrtiosis can cause significant economic loss to farmers. Data about the local distribution, seasonality and types of infestation caused by W. magnifica are useful to farmers and vets to improve control systems, in Calabria as elsewhere within the distributional range of the species.
    • Trimitomics: An efficient pipeline for mitochondrial assembly from transcriptomic reads in nonmodel species

      Plese, Bruna; Rossi, Maria Eleonora; Kenny, Nathan James; Taboada, Sergi; Koutsouveli, Vasiliki; Riesgo, Ana (Wiley, 2019-05-09)
      Mitochondrial resources are of known utility to many fields of phylogenetic, population and molecular biology. Their combination of faster and slower‐evolving regions and high copy number enables them to be used in many situations where other loci are unsuitable, with degraded samples and after recent speciation events.The advent of next‐generation sequencing technologies (and notably the Illumina platform) has led to an explosion in the number of samples that can be studied at transcriptomic level, at relatively low cost. Here we describe a robust pipeline for the recovery of mitochondrial genomes from these RNA‐sequencing resources. This pipeline can be used on sequencing of a variety of depths, and reliably recovers the protein coding and ribosomal gene complements of mitochondria from almost any transcriptomic sequencing experiment. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome can also be recovered when sequencing is performed in sufficient depth. We show the efficacy of our pipeline using data from eight nonmodel invertebrates of six disparate phyla. Interestingly, among our poriferan data, where microbiological symbionts are known empirically to make mitochondrial assembly difficult, this pipeline proved especially useful. Our pipeline will allow the recovery of mitochondrial data from a variety of previously sequenced samples, and add an additional angle of enquiry to future RNA‐sequencing efforts, simplifying the process of mitochondrial genome assembly for even the most recalcitrant clades and adding these data to the scientific record for a range of future uses.
    • Two European Cornus L. feeding leafmining moths, Antispila petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. and A. treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843) (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae): an unjustified synonymy and overlooked range expansion

      van Nieukerken, EVN; Lees, DC; Doorenweerd, C; Koster, SJC; Bryner, R; Schreurs, A; Timmermans, MJTN; Sattler, K (Pensoft Publishers, 2018-01-26)
      Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843) and A. petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. were regarded as synonymous since 1978, but are shown to be two clearly separated species with different hostplants, life histories, DNA barcodes and morphology. Antispila treitschkiella feeds on Cornus mas L., is bivoltine, and has, by following its ornamentally planted host, greatly expanded its range in north-western Europe. In contrast A. petryi feeds on the widespread native C. sanguinea L., is univoltine, and is one of only two Antispila species previously resident in the British Isles, the Netherlands and northern Europe. Consequently, the increase in abundance of A. treitschkiella in the Netherlands since the early 1990s and in Great Britain in recent years must be regarded as part of a recent expansion into north-western Europe, whereas the native A. petryi is hardly expanding and less abundant. In Britain, detailed surveys of parks and living collections confirmed the monophagy of these two species. A search of British herbarium samples provided no evidence for an earlier date of establishment. Information on recognition of all stages, including DNA barcodes, and distribution is provided, and these two species are compared with the third European Cornus L. leafminer, A. metallella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775).
    • Two new species of Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing Aleurolobus rhododendri Takahashi and Dialeuropora decempunctata (Quaintance & Baker) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Taiwan

      Ward, S; Shih, YT; Ko, C-C; Polaszek, Andrew (2016-06-07)
      Background: Species of Eretmocerus Haldeman develop as primary ecto-endoparasites of whiteflies (Rose and Rosen 1992). Currently, the genus Eretmocerus comprises 86 species worldwide, of which 11 species have been previously recorded from Taiwan (Shih et al. 2015). Despite having been recently revised for Taiwan, two new species are here added to the Taiwan fauna. New information: Two new species, Eretmocerus garrywardi Ward sp. nov. and Eretmocerus liangyihchoui Shih sp. nov. found parasitizing Aleurolobus rhododendri Takahashi and Dialeuropora decempunctata respectively, are described. A key to females of Eretmocerus species occurring in Taiwan is provided.
    • Two new species of freshwater crabs from the highlands of northern Uganda, East Africa and a redescription of Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935) stat. rev. from Mount Kadam (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)

      Cumberlidge, N; Clark, PF (2016-03-17)
      Two new species of potamonautid freshwater crabs are described from the Imatong Mountains and Mount Moroto in northern Uganda, East Africa, and a third highland species, Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935) stat. rev. from Mount Kadam is re-diagnosed based on examination of the holotype. All three species are endemic to a different mountain range and their collection localities indicate a distinct preference for higher altitudes. Diagnoses, illustrations and distribution maps are provided for these taxa, and they are compared to similar species from the region. The conservation status of all three species is discussed.
    • Two new species of genus Ateleute Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae) with a key to the Oriental species

      Sheng, M-L; Broad, G; Sun, S-P (Pensoft, 2011-10-28)
      Three species of Ateleute Förster 1869 belonging to the tribe Cryptini of the subfamily Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), collected from Jiangxi Province, China, are reported, of which two are new for science: Ateleute ferruginea Sheng, Broad & Sun, sp. n. and A. zixiensis Sheng, Broad & Sun, sp. n. One, A. densistriata (Uchida, 1955), was previously known from China and Japan. A key to the species of genus Ateleute known in the Oriental Region is provided.
    • Two new species of Sympagella (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Rossellidae) collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, East Pacific

      HERZOG, S; Amon, DJ; Smith, CR; JANUSSEN, D (Biotaxa, 2018-08-31)
      Two new Hexactinellida species from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the East Pacific Ocean are described. They are the first described representatives of the genus Sympagella in this region. The new sponges were collected in 2013 during the ABYSSLINE Project´s first cruise, AB01, on board the RV Melville. The CCZ is known for its polymetallic nodules but megafaunal biodiversity is still poorly understood. Our findings suggest that the poriferan fauna of the eastern CCZ is both species rich and inadequately known, and that substantially more sampling and taxonomic studies of the CCZ sponge fauna are required to establish a megafaunal biogeography and evaluate potential extinction risks resulting from polymetallic-nodule mining.
    • Two new species of the genus Cylindrophis Wagler, 1828 (Squamata: Cylindrophiidae) from Southeast Asia

      Amarashinghe, AAT; Campbell, P; Hallermann, J; Sidik, I; Supriatna, J; Ineich, I (Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 2015-06-10)
    • Two species of Caiusa Surcouf (Diptera: Calliphoridae) new to India, with data on larval behaviour and morphology.

      Banerjee, A; Rognes, K; Whitmore, D (2018)
      Caiusa Surcouf (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an Old World genus of blow flies, the larvae of which feed on egg masses in the foam nests of various species of rhacophorid tree frogs. Here, we provide the first records for India (West Bengal, Eastern India) of Caiusa coomani Séguy, 1948 and C. karrakerae Rognes, 2015, together with new information on the behaviour and morphology of their larvae. Active surface swimming to disperse from infested nests is documented in blow fly larvae for the first time, as is the presence of a large internal air sac presumably acting as a floating aid. Chiromantis simus (Annandale, 1915) (Anura: Rhacophoridae) egg masses are first recorded as a feeding substrate of Caiusa larvae.
    • The type specimens and type localities of the orangutans, genus Pongo Lacépède, 1799 (Primates: Hominidae)

      Brandon-Jones, D; Groves, CP; Jenkins, Paulina (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-20)
      Uncertain type localities undermine orangutan nomenclature. Bequeathed to the British Museum, the holotype of Pongo pygmaeus, according to Hans Sloane’s catalogue, came from Borneo and died in China. The historical evidence makes Banjarmasin its most probable type locality. William Montgomerie, Assistant Surgeon at Singapore from 1819-1827, and Senior Surgeon from 1832, supplied the holotype of Simia morio. In 1836 an adult female orangutan reached Singapore alive from Pontianak, Borneo. The holotypes of S. morio, S. hendrikzii, S. straussii and P[ithecus] owenii probably had the same origin, as pirate attacks endangered visits to other Bornean coasts. Absent from Brunei and north Sarawak, Malaysia, throughout the Holocene, orangutans occur there only as Pleistocene subfossils at Niah. Pan vetus (the Piltdown mandible) probably came from Paku, Sarawak. We identify Pongo borneo Lacépède, 1799 as an objective senior synonym of P. wurmbii Tiedemann, 1808, correcting its type locality from Sukadana to near Pontianak. This is the earliest name for the western subspecies (previously thought nominotypical) unless Pithecus curtus, probably from the Sadong River, Sarawak, represents a separate subspecies. If so, the name Pongo borneo would transfer to the southern population west of the Kahayan River, genetically distinguished at species level from the Sumatran orangutan, P. abelii.
    • Uncovering Cryptic Parasitoid Diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

      Kenyon, SG; Buerki, S; Hansson, C; Alvarez, N; Benrey, B; Ballhorn, D (2015-09-09)
    • Uncovering the sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion by shearwaters using fatty acid analysis.

      Puskic, PS; Lavers, JL; Adams, LR; Grünenwald, M; Hutton, I; Bond, AL (Oxford Academic, 2019-05-16)
      Marine plastic pollution is increasing exponentially, impacting an expanding number of taxa each year across all trophic levels. Of all bird groups, seabirds display the highest plastic ingestion rates and are regarded as sentinels of pollution within their foraging regions. The consumption of plastic contributes to sub-lethal impacts (i.e. morbidity, starvation) in a handful of species. Additional data on these sub-lethal effects are needed urgently to better understand the scope and severity of the plastics issue. Here we explore the application of fatty acid (FA) analysis as a novel tool to investigate sub-lethal impacts of plastic ingestion on seabird body condition and health. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 37 individual FAs within the adipose, breast muscle and liver of flesh-footed (Ardenna carneipes) and short-tailed (Ardenna tenuirostris) shearwaters. We found high amounts of FA 16:0, 18:0, 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid), 22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid) and 18:1n9 in both species; however, the overall FA composition of the two species differed significantly. In flesh-footed shearwaters, high amounts of saturated and mono-unsaturated FAs (needed for fast and slow release energy, respectively) in the adipose and muscle tissues were related to greater bird body mass. While total FAs were not related to the amount of plastic ingested in either species, these data are a valuable contribution to the limited literature on FAs in seabirds. We encourage studies to explore other analytical tools to detect these sub-lethal impacts of plastic.
    • UniEuk : Time to Speak a Common Language in Protistology!

      Berney, C; Ciuprina, A; Bender, S; Brodie, J; Edgcomb, V; Kim, E; Rajan, J; Parfrey, LW; Adl, S; Audic, S; et al. (Wiley, 2017-03-24)
      Universal taxonomic frameworks have been critical tools to structure the fields of botany, zoology, mycology, and bacteriology as well as their large research communities. Animals, plants, and fungi have relatively solid, stable morpho‐taxonomies built over the last three centuries, while bacteria have been classified for the last three decades under a coherent molecular taxonomic framework. By contrast, no such common language exists for microbial eukaryotes, even though environmental ‘‐omics’ surveys suggest that protists make up most of the organismal and genetic complexity of our planet's ecosystems! With the current deluge of eukaryotic meta‐omics data, we urgently need to build up a universal eukaryotic taxonomy bridging the protist ‐omics age to the fragile, centuries‐old body of classical knowledge that has effectively linked protist taxa to morphological, physiological, and ecological information. UniEuk is an open, inclusive, community‐based and expert‐driven international initiative to build a flexible, adaptive universal taxonomic framework for eukaryotes. It unites three complementary modules, EukRef, EukBank, and EukMap, which use phylogenetic markers, environmental metabarcoding surveys, and expert knowledge to inform the taxonomic framework. The UniEuk taxonomy is directly implemented in the European Nucleotide Archive at EMBL‐EBI, ensuring its broad use and long‐term preservation as a reference taxonomy for eukaryotes.
    • Unifying European Biodiversity Informatics (BioUnify)

      Koureas, D; Hardisty, A; Vos, R; Agosti, D; Arvanitidis, C; Bogatencov, P; Buttigieg, PL; de Jong, Y; Horvath, F; Gkoutos, G; et al. (2016-01-19)
    • The unknown planktonic foraminiferal pioneer Henry A. Buckley and his collection at The Natural History Museum, London

      Rillo, MC; Whittaker, J; Ezard, THG; Purvis, A; Henderson, AS; Stukins, S; Giles Miller, C (2016-12-22)