Our unrivalled collections, broad expertise and cutting-edge equipment allow us to carry out complex non-destructive analyses of naturally occurring samples, and identify and interpret other materials such as metals, ceramics and composites.

Recent Submissions

  • Petrological and geochemical characterisation of the sarsen stones at Stonehenge

    Nash, David J; Ciborowski, T Jake R; Darvill, Timothy; Parker Pearson, Mike; Ullyott, J Stewart; Damaschke, Magret; Evans, Jane A; Goderis, Steven; Greaney, Susan; Huggett, Jennifer M; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-08-04)
    Little is known of the properties of the sarsen stones (or silcretes) that comprise the main architecture of Stonehenge. The only studies of rock struck from the monument date from the 19th century, while 20th century investigations have focussed on excavated debris without demonstrating a link to specific megaliths. Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of sarsen samples taken directly from a Stonehenge megalith (Stone 58, in the centrally placed trilithon horseshoe). We apply state-of-the-art petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques to two cores drilled from the stone during conservation work in 1958. Petrographic analyses demonstrate that Stone 58 is a highly indurated, grain-supported, structureless and texturally mature groundwater silcrete, comprising fine-to-medium grained quartz sand cemented by optically-continuous syntaxial quartz overgrowths. In addition to detrital quartz, trace quantities of silica-rich rock fragments, Fe-oxides/hydroxides and other minerals are present. Cathodoluminescence analyses show that the quartz cement developed as an initial <10 μm thick zone of non-luminescing quartz followed by ~16 separate quartz cement growth zones. Late-stage Fe-oxides/hydroxides and Ti-oxides line and/or infill some pores. Automated mineralogical analyses indicate that the sarsen preserves 7.2 to 9.2 area % porosity as a moderately-connected intergranular network. Geochemical data show that the sarsen is chemically pure, comprising 99.7 wt. % SiO2. The major and trace element chemistry is highly consistent within the stone, with the only magnitude variations being observed in Fe content. Non-quartz accessory minerals within the silcrete host sediments impart a trace element signature distinct from standard sedimentary and other crustal materials. 143Nd/144Nd isotope analyses suggest that these host sediments were likely derived from eroded Mesozoic rocks, and that these Mesozoic rocks incorporated much older Mesoproterozoic material. The chemistry of Stone 58 has been identified recently as representative of 50 of the 52 remaining sarsens at Stonehenge. These results are therefore representative of the main stone type used to build what is arguably the most important Late Neolithic monument in Europe.
  • Petrographic and chemical studies of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sequence at El Guayal, Tabasco, Mexico: Implications for ejecta plume evolution from the Chicxulub impact crater

    Salge, T; Tagle, Roald; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Hecht, Lutz; Wolf Uwe, Reimold; Chris, Koeberl (Geological Society of America, 2021-06-30)
    A combined petrographic and chemical study of ejecta particles from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sequence of El Guayal, Tabasco, Mexico (520 km SW of Chicxulub crater), was carried out to assess their formation conditions and genetic relation during the impact process. The reaction of silicate ejecta particles with hot volatiles during atmospheric transport may have induced alteration processes, e.g., silicification and cementation, observed in the ejecta deposits. The various microstructures of calcite ejecta particles are interpreted to reflect different thermal histories at postshock conditions. Spherulitic calcite particles may represent carbonate melts that were quenched during ejection. A recrystallized microstructure may indicate short, intense thermal stress. Various aggregates document particle-particle interactions and intermixing of components from lower silicate and upper sedimentary target lithologies. Aggregates of recrystallized calcite with silicate melt indicate the consolidation of a hot suevitic component with sediments at ≳750 °C. Accretionary lapilli formed in a turbulent, steam-condensing environment at ~100 °C by aggregation of solid, ash-sized particles. Concentric zones with smaller grain sizes of accreted particles indicate a recurring exchange with a hotter environment. Our results suggest that during partial ejecta plume collapse, hot silicate components were mixed with the fine fraction of local surface-derived sediments, the latter of which were displaced by the preceding ejecta curtain. These processes sustained a hot, gas-driven, lateral basal transport that was accompanied by a turbulent plume at a higher level. The exothermic back-reaction of CaO from decomposed carbonates and sulfates with CO2 to form CaCO3 may have been responsible for a prolonged release of thermal energy at a late stage of plume evolution.
  • A new metriorhynchid crocodylomorph from the Oxford Clay Formation (Middle Jurassic) of England, with implications for the origin and diversification of Geosaurini

    Foffa, Davide; Young, Mark T; Brusatte, Stephen L; Graham, M; Steel, Lorna (Taylor and Francis, 2017-10-02)
    Metriorhynchids are an extinct group of Jurassic–Cretaceous crocodylomorphs secondarily adapted to a marine lifestyle. A new metriorhynchid crocodylomorph from the Oxford Clay Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of England is described. The specimen is a large, fragmentary skull and associated single ramus of a lower jaw uniquely preserved in a septarian concretion. The description of the specimen reveals a series of autapomorphies (apicobasal flutings on the middle labial surface of the tooth crowns, greatly enlarged basoccipital tuberosities) and a unique combination of characters that warrant the creation of a new genus and species: Ieldraan melkshamensis gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous characters with the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous genus Geosaurus: tooth crowns that have three apicobasal facets on their labial surface, subtly ornamented skull and lower jaws elements, and reception pits along the lateral margin of the dentary (maxillary overbite). Phylogenetic analysis places this new species as the sister taxon to Geosaurus. The new taxon adds valuable information on the time of origin of the macrophagous subclade Geosaurini, which was initially thought to have evolved and radiated during the Late Jurassic. The presence of Ieldraan melkshamensis, the phylogenetic re-evaluation of Suchodus durobrivensis as a Plesiosuchus sister taxon and recently identified Callovian Dakosaurus-like specimens in the Oxford Clay Formation, indicate that all major Geosaurini lineages originated earlier than previously supposed. This has major implications for the evolution of macropredation in the group. Specifically, we can now demonstrate that the four different forms of true ziphodonty observed in derived geosaurins independently evolved from a single non-functional microziphodont common ancestor.
  • An overlooked contributor to palaeontology—the preparator Richard Hall (b. 1839) and his work on an armoured dinosaur and a giant sea dragon

    Graham, M; Radley, Jonathan; Lomax, Dean; Brewer, Pip (Geological Curator, 2020-11-12)
    The work of Richard Hall, a fossil preparator at the British Museum (Natural History) in the late 19th century, has been largely unrecorded. It included the excavation, preparation and restoration of two important specimens: the dinosaur Polacanthus foxii and the ichthyosaur Temnodontosaurus platyodon. The painstaking reconstruction of the dorsal shield of Polacanthus took seven years to complete and enabled a supplemental note redescribing the specimen to be published in 1887. The significance of the discovery in 1898 of the Temnodontosaurus to the town of Stockton in Warwickshire was such that it featured in an article in Nature. It has entered the local folklore and remains celebrated on the town’s road signage and features as the logo of Stockton Primary School.
  • The air-abrasive technique: A re-evaluation of its use in fossil preparation

    Graham, M; Allington-Jones, L (Coquina Press, 2018-08-02)
    This paper outlines the history of air-abrasion (also known as airbrasion) as a paleontological preparation technique and evaluates various powders and their properties. It explores the rationale behind the selection of abrasive powders and presents, for the first time, trench-scatter experiments through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photography and three-dimensional (3-D) profiling. This article also offers general practical advice and details the results of an international survey of practising fossil preparators.
  • Zircon-hosted apatite inclusions: A powerful tool for reconstruction of Cl contents in melts

    Tuffield, L; Buret, Y; Large, S; Spratt, J; Wilkinson, JJ (Mineral Deposits Studies Group, 2020-01)
    Chlorine in the exsolved volatile phase plays an important role in complexing with metals in the extraction and concentration of metals in magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits. Therefore, tracking the concentration and evolution of Cl in the parent melt is of particular importance in understanding how such deposits form. In theory, the incorporation of Cl into apatite could be used to track the volatile content of melts; however, low closure temperatures and the rapid diffusion of halogens in apatite make it susceptible to sub-solidus re-equilibration by later thermal events and hydrothermal fluids. This susceptibility compromises its ability to retain the primary halogen signature. However, the common occurrence of apatite as an inclusion phase in zircon crystals, together with the refractory nature of zircon, open up the possibility that such inclusions may preserve primary Clmelt compositions [1]. The Rio-Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper district is located in central Chile and hosts several world class porphyry copper deposits as well as barren intrusions [2]. This makes it an excellent area for an investigation of the role of Clmelt in the formation of porphyry copper deposits, as well as the effect of sub-solidus re-equilibration of Cl in apatite. For this study we analysed apatite crystals that occur both in the groundmass and as inclusions in zircons in four samples from the Los Bronces porphyry copper district using EPMA for halogen and major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements. These samples include a barren intrusion unrelated to mineralisation that precedes mineralisation by around 10 Ma, and pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries. Apatite inclusions hosted in zircon crystals typically exhibit a large range in Cl concentrations (<0.5 –2.5 wt.% Cl), with all inclusion data exhibiting polymodal distributions of Cl concentrations. By contrast, groundmass apatites from all samples are characterised by uniformly low Cl concentrations (<0.5 wt.% Cl). These results are consistent with the apatite crystals in the groundmass having experienced sub-solidus re-equilibration related to the pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the district. The wide range in Cl concentrations recorded by the apatite inclusions is interpreted to reflect changing Clmelt for the duration of apatite and zircon crystallisation, perhaps linked to volatile saturation and preferential partitioning of Cl into the aqueous phase. Additionally, the apatites hosted in zircon crystals show significant inter-sample variations, evolving from low Cl concentration (<0.5 wt. % Cl) in the barren intrusion, to higher Cl concentrations (0.5 – 2.5 wt.% Cl) in the samples closely temporally associated with porphyry Cu mineralisation. These data suggest that Clmelt was significantly higher (0.05 – 0.40 wt.% Clmelt) in the melts associated with porphyry copper mineralisation compared with the precursor barren magmatism (~0.04 wt.% Clmelt) [3]. We conclude that due to the rapid diffusion of halogens in apatite in the presence of melt or hydrothermal fluid, the study of apatite inclusions hosted in zircon crystals is required to reconstruct primary melt compositions and to track the evolution of Cl concentrations in porphyry-forming magmas. This study reveals high Clmelt concentrations in the magmas related to mineralisation in the Los Bronces district, a property that would have facilitated the efficient extraction and concentration of metals. References: [1] Brugge, E. et al. (2019). Proc. 15th SGA Biennial Meeting, Vol. 2, 983-986. [2] Toro, J.C. et al. (2012). SEG Special Publication 16:105-126. [3] Li, H. and Hermann, J. (2017) Am. Mineral. 102:580-594.
  • Preparing detailed morphological features of fossil brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) for scanning electron microscopy using a combination of mechanical preparation techniques.

    Graham, M; Ewin, Timothy; Brewer, P (Geological Curators Group, 2020-01-27)
    In order to facilitate detailed SEM analysis of recently available, undescribed fossil ophiuroid material from the Aptian, Lower Cretaceous, Atherfield Clay Formation of the Isle of Wight, Hampshire, UK a combination of careful mechanical preparation techniques was employed to great effect. Specimens were initially exposed using standard air abrasive techniques, but the final few millimetres of matrix were removed using pins. To get individual arm pieces exceptionally clear of matrix, they were removed from the blocks using a mini pedestalling technique and then further cleaned using an ultrasonic pen. This combination of techniques fully exposed all the elements required for full taxonomic study without causing severe damage to the plate surfaces and greatly improved the overall aesthetic of the specimens. These techniques could be more widely applied in fossil preparation.
  • “Hope” is the thing with feathers: how useful are cyclomethicones when cleaning taxidermy?

    Allington-Jones, L (NatSCA, 2020-10-01)
    Silicone solvents have extreme hydrophobicity so they can be used as a temporary barrier to aqueous cleaning solutions. They are characterised as having low odour, moderately low toxicity, low polarity and surface tension. They are 100% volatile so will leave no trace behind. Silicone solvents could potentially be used to flood the skin of taxidermy specimens, to provide a barrier whilst fur or feathers are cleaned, and even permit the use of heat treatments without causing damage to the skin. They will not cause drying or swelling and will not dissolve or mobilise any skin components such as dyes or fats, which would normally be adversely affected by water or other solvents. They are also, in theory, safe to use on skin which has suffered so much deterioration that the shrinkage temperature is close to room temperature. Different classes of silicone solvents have different working times and this article explores 3 of these, and their practical applicability when cleaning taxidermy.
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy as a valuable tool in Diptera larval morphology studies

    Grzywacz, A; Góral, T; Szpila, K; Hall, MJR (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-09-19)
    Larval morphology of flies is traditionally studied using light microscopy, yet in the case of fine structures compound light microscopy is limited due to problems of resolution, illumination and depth of field, not allowing for precise recognition of sclerites’ edges and interactions. Using larval instars of cyclorrhaphan Diptera, we show the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for studying the morphological characters of immature stages by taking advantage of the autofluorescent properties of cephaloskeleton structures. We compare data obtained from killed but unprepared larvae with those from larvae prepared by clearing according to two commonly used methods, either with potassium hydroxide or with Hoyer’s medium. We also evaluated the CLSM application for examining already slide-mounted larvae stored in museum collections and those freshly prepared. Our results indicate that CLSM and 3D reconstruction are excellent for visualizing small, compound structures of cylrorrhaphan larvae cephaloskeleton, if appropriate clearing techniques, i.e. the application of KOH, are used. Maximum intensity projection of confocal data sets obtained from material freshly prepared and that stored in museum collection does not differ. Because of this and the fact that KOH is commonly used as a clearing method to examine the cephaloskeleton of Diptera larvae, it is possible, and highly recommended, to use slides already prepared with this method for re-examination by CLSM. We conclude that CLSM application can be an invaluable source of data for studies of larval morphology of Cyclorrhapha by way of taxonomic diagnoses, character identification and improvement in characters homologization.
  • Classification and characterisation of magmatic-hydrothermal tourmaline by combining field observations and microanalytical techniques

    Drivenes, K; Brownscombe, W; Larsen, RB; Seltmann, Reimar; Spratt, J; Sørensen, BE (IOP Publishing, 2020)
    Tourmaline from the St. Byron lobe of the Land’s End granite, SW England, was assessed by macroscopic, optical and quantitative microanalytical methods. In total, seven types of tourmaline were distinguished. The seven types reflect different crystallisation environments and stages in the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Types 1-3 are interpreted to represent a gradual transition from tourmaline crystallising from a silicate melt to precipitation from magmatic aqueous fluids. Types 5-7 crystallised at subsolidus conditions from a different fluid generation than types 1-3. These fluids may be magmatic or mixed with other fluids (e.g., meteoric or formation waters). The Sn-mineralisation in the area is mostly related to the latter fluid generation, and the mineralising potential is reflected by the tourmaline composition.
  • Cleaning Minerals: practical and ethical considerations

    Allington-Jones, L (Geological Curators' Group, 2017-11-01)
    Mineral specimens have a dual nature, both as a scientific resource and an aesthetic pleasure. Combine this with a long history of sampling for study, and the developed nature of most specimens on the commercial market, and it is difficult to relate to the ethical principles of conservation when cleaning minerals.
  • Crookesite, Cu7TlSe4, from Littleham Cove, Devon: the first mineral containing essential thallium from the British Isles

    Rumsey, MS; Dossett, I; Green, DI; Najorka, J; Spratt, J; Rumsey, MS (The Russell Society, 2015-10-01)
    The rare thallium copper selenide crookesite occurs as dark grey metallic needles in at least two cavities in a nodule collected from cliffs at Littleham Cove, Budleigh Salterton, Devon. This is the first report of a thallium mineral from the British Isles. The small crystal size, confusion in the mineralogical literature and the need to preserve as much of the specimen as possible for future study, made the identification particularly challenging. Thallium minerals have a very limited worldwide distribution. They are almost entirely restricted to unusual low temperature epithermal deposits. The discovery of crookesite in nodules in a Permian red bed environment is, therefore of significant interest. Thallium minerals do not appear to have been reported in this geological setting before.
  • Hydroxyferroroméite, a new secondary weathering mineral from Oms, France

    Mills, S; Christy, A; Rumsey, M; Spratt, J; Bittarello, E; Favreau, G; Ciriotti, M; Berbain, C (2017-04-28)
    Hydroxyferroroméite, ideally (Fe2+ 1.5[]0.5)Sb5+ 2O6(OH), is a new secondary mineral from the Correc d'en Llinassos, Oms, Pyrénées-Orientales Department, France. Hydroxyferroroméite occurs as yellow to yellow-brown powdery boxwork replacements up to about 50μm across after tetrahedrite in a siderite–quartz matrix. No distinct crystals have been observed. The empirical formula (based on 7 (O + OH) per formula unit, pfu) is (Fe2+ 1.07Cu2+ 0.50Zn0.03Sr0.03Ca 0.01[]0.36)Σ2 (Sb5+ 1.88Si0.09Al0.02As0.01)Σ2 O6 ((OH)0.86 O0.14). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the valence states of Sb, Fe and Cu. Hydroxyferroroméite crystallises in the space group Fd3 m with the pyrochlore structure and hence is a new Fe2+ -dominant member of the roméite group of the pyrochlore supergroup. It has the unit-cell parameters: a = 10.25(3) Å, V = 1077(6) Å3 and Z = 8. A model, based on bond-valence theory, for incorporation of the small Fe2+ cation into a displaced variant of the A site of the pyrochlore structure is proposed.
  • Conservation in a Barcode Age: A cross-discipline re-storage project for pyritic specimens

    Allington-Jones, L; Trafford, A (International Council of Museums, 2017-01-01)
    The dichotomy of conservation and access has long been recognised within the museum profession. The recent push for digitisation has added a new dimension to this argument: digital records can both increase potential access, due to increased awareness of the existence of objects, and decrease potential handling, since a more thorough awareness of an object creates a more informed decision regarding whether access is actually necessary. The use of barcodes and the creation of digital resources have therefore been incorporated into a re-storage project at the Natural History Museum, London to reduce duplication of work (and handling) by staff and to combat the reduction in access caused by the enclosure of objects within microenvironments, which in turn helps preserve specimens for future access. This project demonstrates how conservation and digitisation can successfully synthesise through the use of barcodes, when working with a cross-discipline team.
  • The Airless Project

    Allington-Jones, L; Trafford, A (Natural Sciences Collections Association, 2017-04-20)
    A project to combat pyrite oxidation at the NHM (London, UK) is currently in its second year. The project aims to undertake conservation treatments and store highest risk specimens in low oxygen microenvironments. An emergent benefit of the conservation-driven project has been the digitisation of specimens on the collection management system KE Emu, through the use of barcodes and web-based applications.
  • Detecting foraminiferal photosymbionts in the fossil record: a combined micropalaeontological and geochemical approach

    Bhatia, R; Wade, B; Hilding-Kronforst, S; Spratt, J; Leng, M; Thornalley, D (2016-08-30)
  • Blue Whale on the Move: Dismantling a 125 Year-Old Specimen

    Bernucci, A; Cornish, L; Lynn, C (museum fur naturkunde berlinBerlin, Germany, 2016)
    The Natural History Museum (London, UK) intends to suspend a 25 metre-long, blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) from its central Hintze Hall. Alongside other specimens which are to be put on open display in this space the environment was looked at in terms of sustainable improvements. Works are being undertaken to improve the conditions by utilizing natural ventilation and re-using existing duct work. This specimen, acquired by the Museum in 1891, was suspended from the ceiling of the Mammal Hall, where it has been on display since 1934. Conservators worked with a specialist specimen handling company to carefully dismantle and remove each of the 220 bones from its original mount. The skull required a special frame and a precise calculation of movement to dismantle it and remove it. Many complex decisions were made during this process – as each bone removal did not dictate what the next would bring. During the dismantling phase, the conservation team have had to address the many requirements of curators, researchers, senior management and the media.
  • Mechanisms for the generation of HREE mineralization in carbonatites: Evidence from Huanglongpu, China.

    Smith, M; Cangelosi, D; Yardley, B; Wenlei Song, CX; Spratt, J (The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 2019-12-30)
    The Hunaglongpu carbonatites, Qinling Mountains, China, are exceptional as they form both an economic Mo resource, and are enriched in the HREE compared to typical carbonatites, giving a metal profile that may closely match projected future demand. The carbonatites at the level currently exposed appear to be transitional between magmatic and hydrothermal processes. The multistage dykes and veins are cored by quartz which hosts a fluid inclusion assemblage with a high proportion of sulphate daughter or trapped minerals, and later stage, cross-cutting veins are rich in barite-celestine. The REE mineral paragenesis evolves from monazite, through apatite and bastnäsite to Ca-REE fluorcabonates, with an increase in HREE enrichment at every stage. Radio-isotope ratios are typical of enriched mantle sources and sulphur stable isotopes are consistent with magmatic S sources. However, Mg stable isotopes are consistent with a component of recycled subducted marine carbonate in the source region, The HREE enrichment is a function of both unusual mantle source for the primary magmas and REE mobility and concentration during post-magmatic modification in a sulphate-rich hydrothermal system. Aqueous sulphate is a none specific ligand for the REE, and this coupled with crystal fraction lead to HREE enrichment during subsolidus alteration.
  • Porphyry Cu(Mo) deposits of the Urals: insights from molybdenite trace element geochemistry

    Plotinskya, OP; Abramova, VD; Bondar, D; Seltmann, Reimar; Spratt, J (The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 2019-10-01)
    The first data on EMPA and LA-ICPMS study of molybdenite from four porphyry deposits of the South and Middle Urals (Tomino, Mikheevskoe and Benkala porphyry Cu and Talitsa porphyry Mo deposits) are presented. It is shown that most trace elements form mineral inclusions within molybdenite in all the deposits studied; only Re and W are most likely to be incorporated into the molybdenite lattice. Porphyry Cu deposits (Tomino and Mikheevskoe) formed within oceanic arc settings are featured by high contents of Re (mostly over 400 ppm) and low contents of W (<10 ppm) in molybdenite; porphyry Cu deposits from Andean-type geotectonic environment (Benkala) are featured by lower Re content (hundreds ppm) and high contents of W (tens ppm) in molybdenite. Molybdenite from porphyry deposits from collisional setting (Talitsa) has low content of Re and elevated W contents (tens ppm). It is demonstrated that trace element geochemistry of molybdenite is a useful tool to define the source of metal components and the geotectonic environment for porphyry Cu(Mo) deposits.
  • The crystal chemistry of elsmoreite from the Hemerdon (Drakelands) mine, UK: hydrokenoelsmoreite-3C and hydrokenoelsmoreite-6R

    Mills, SJ; Christy, AG; Rumsey, MS; Spratt, J (Cambridge University Press, 2016-12-01)
    A crystallographic and chemical study of two 'elsmoreite' samples (previously described as 'ferritungstite') from the Hemerdon mine (now known as the Drakelands mine), Devon, United Kingdom has shown them to be two different polytypes of hydrokenoelsmoreite. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-3C(HKE-3C) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameter a = 10.3065(3) Å. Hydrokenoelsmoreite-6R (HKE-6R) crystallizes in space group , with the unit-cell parameters a = 7.2882(2) Å and c = 35.7056(14)Å. Chemical analyses showed that both polytypes have Na and Fe/Al substitution giving the formulae: (Na0.28Ca0.04K0.02(H2O)0.20⁏1.46)∑2.00(W1.47Fe3+ 0.32Al0.21As5+ 0.01)∑2.00[O4.79(OH)1.21]∑6.00·(H2O)(3C) and (Na0.24Ca0.04K0.03(H2O)0.63⁏1.06)∑2.00(W1.42Fe3+ 0.49Al0.08As5+ 0.01)∑2.00[O4.65(OH)1.35]∑6.00·(H2O)(6R). The doubling of the unit cell in the 6R phase is due to ordering of Na and ( ,H2O) in the A site; no long-range ordering is observed between W and Fe/Al in the B site.

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