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Mineralogical study of the Gonçalo Li-pegmatite deposit, PortugalBeside the Scandinavian countries and Serbia, Portugal is among the European countries with the most significant lithium resources. The Li-rich occurrences in Portugal are mainly associated with aplite-pegmatite dykes and sills intruded in granitic and metasedimentary rocks of the Central Iberian and Galicia – Trás-os-Montes geotectonic zones (Carvalho & Farinha, 2004). The Gonçalo Li-pegmatites in the Guarda district (currently only used as decorative stone) have significant economic importance. Among other deposits, Gonçalo is a reference site in the focus of the EU FAME project (www.fame-project.eu) that aims to unlock the development potential of the most promising European Sn-W-Li ore types. Results of optical microscopy, QEMSCAN©, Raman and electron-probe microanalysis of the Gonçalo Li-pegmatite deposit have been employed to determine the mineralogical variability of the pegmatites with the aim to determine the deportment of lithium and potential rare-metal by-products and to guide enhanced mineral processing technologies.