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dc.contributor.authorBeerli, N
dc.contributor.authorBärtschi, F
dc.contributor.authorKitching, IJ
dc.contributor.authorBallesteros-Mejia, L
dc.contributor.authorBeck, J
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-31T13:23:37Z
dc.date.available2019-07-31T13:23:37Z
dc.date.issued2019-05-14
dc.date.submitted2019-07-26
dc.identifier.citationBeerli, N, Bärtschi, F, Ballesteros‐Mejia, L, Kitching, IJ, Beck, J. How has the environment shaped geographical patterns of insect body sizes? A test of hypotheses using sphingid moths. J Biogeogr. 2019; 46: 1687– 1698. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13583en_US
dc.identifier.issn0305-0270
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/jbi.13583
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10141/622550
dc.description.abstractAim: We mapped the geographical pattern of body sizes in sphingid moths and investigated latitudinal clines. We tested hypotheses concerning their possible environmental control, that is, effects of temperature (negative: temperature size rule or Bergmann's rule; positive: converse Bergmann rule), food availability, robustness to starvation during extreme weather and seasonality. Location: Old World and Australia/Pacific region. Methods: Body size data of 950 sphingid species were compiled and related to their distribution maps. Focusing on body length, we mapped the median and maximum size of all species occurring in 100 km grid cells. In a comparative approach, we tested the predictions from explanatory hypotheses by correlating species' size to the average environmental conditions encountered throughout their range, under univariate and multivariate models. We accounted for phylogeny by stepwise inclusion of phylogenetically informed taxonomic classifications into hierarchical random‐intercept mixed models. Results: Median body sizes showed a distinctive geographical pattern, with large species in the Middle East and the Asian tropics, and smaller species in temperate regions and the Afrotropics. Absolute latitude explained very little body size variation, but there was a latitudinal cline of maximum size. Species' median size was correlated with net primary productivity, supporting the food availability hypothesis, whereas support for other hypotheses was weak. Environmental correlations contributed much less (i.e. <10%) to explaining overall size variation than phylogeny (inclusion of which led to models explaining >70% of variability). Main conclusion: The intuitive impression of larger species in the tropics is shaped by larger size maxima. Median body sizes are only very weakly related to latitude. Most of the geographical variation in body size in sphingid moths is explained by their phylogenetic past. NPP and forest cover correlate positively with the body size, which supports the idea that food availability allowed the evolution of larger sizes.en_US
dc.publisherWileyen_US
dc.rightsclosedAccessen_US
dc.subjectBergmann's Rule; Body size; Ectotherms; Models; Phylogeny; Sphingidaeen_US
dc.titleHow has the environment shaped geographical patterns of insect body sizes? A test of hypotheses using sphingid moths.en_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Biogeographyen_US
dc.identifier.volume46en_US
dc.identifier.startpage1687 - 1698 (12)en_US
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Functional groups
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Functional groups/Research
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Functional groups/Research/LS Research
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Life Sciences
dc.embargoNot knownen_US
elements.import.authorBeerli, Nen_US
elements.import.authorBärtschi, Fen_US
elements.import.authorKitching, IJen_US
elements.import.authorBallesteros-Mejia, Len_US
elements.import.authorBeck, Jen_US
dc.description.nhmCopyright © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Beerli, N, Bärtschi, F, Ballesteros‐Mejia, L, Kitching, IJ, Beck, J. How has the environment shaped geographical patterns of insect body sizes? A test of hypotheses using sphingid moths. J Biogeogr. 2019; 46: 1687– 1698, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13583. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archivingen_US
dc.subject.nhmBergmann's ruleen_US
dc.subject.nhmcomparative ectothermsen_US
dc.subject.nhmhawkmothsen_US
dc.subject.nhmLepidopteraen_US
dc.subject.nhmphylogenyen_US
refterms.dateFOA2019-07-31T13:23:37Z


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