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dc.contributor.authorCooper, RL
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, VJ
dc.contributor.authorDi-Pöi, N
dc.contributor.authorFletcher, AG
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, PM
dc.contributor.authorFraser, GJ
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-14T12:43:19Z
dc.date.available2019-08-14T12:43:19Z
dc.date.issued2019-08-13
dc.date.submitted2019-08-14
dc.identifier.issn2041-9139
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s13227-019-0130-9
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10141/622558
dc.description.abstractBackground: Vertebrates possess a diverse range of integumentary epithelial appendages, including scales, feathers and hair. These structures share extensive early developmental homology, as they mostly originate from a conserved anatomical placode. In the context of avian epithelial appendages, feathers and scutate scales are known to develop from an anatomical placode. However, our understanding of avian reticulate (footpad) scale development remains unclear. Results: Here, we demonstrate that reticulate scales develop from restricted circular domains of thickened epithelium, with localised conserved gene expression in both the epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. These domains constitute either anatomical placodes, or circular initiatory fields (comparable to the avian feather tract). Subsequent patterning of reticulate scales is consistent with reaction–diffusion (RD) simulation, whereby this primary domain subdivides into smaller secondary units, which produce individual scales. In contrast, the footpad scales of a squamate model (the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps) develop synchronously across the ventral footpad surface. Conclusions: Widely conserved gene signalling underlies the initial development of avian reticulate scales. However, their subsequent patterning is distinct from the footpad scale patterning of a squamate model, and the feather and scutate scale patterning of birds. Therefore, we suggest reticulate scales are a comparatively derived epithelial appendage, patterned through a modified RD system.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://evodevojournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13227-019-0130-9en_US
dc.rightsopenAccessen_US
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectEpithelial appendage; Placode; Reticulate scale; Chicken; Patterning; Reaction-diffusionen_US
dc.titleConserved gene signalling and a derived patterning mechanism underlie the development of avian footpad scalesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.identifier.journalEvoDevoen_US
dc.identifier.volume10en_US
dc.identifier.startpage? - ? (11)en_US
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Earth Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Earth Sciences/Vertebrates and Anthropology Palaeobiology
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Functional groups
pubs.organisational-group/Natural History Museum/Science Group/Functional groups/Research
dc.embargoNot knownen_US
elements.import.authorCooper, RLen_US
elements.import.authorLloyd, VJen_US
elements.import.authorDi-Pöi, Nen_US
elements.import.authorFletcher, AGen_US
elements.import.authorBarrett, PMen_US
elements.import.authorFraser, GJen_US
dc.description.nhm© The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en_US
dc.subject.nhmEpithelial appendageen_US
dc.subject.nhmPlacodeen_US
dc.subject.nhmReticulate scaleen_US
dc.subject.nhmChickenen_US
dc.subject.nhmPatterningen_US
dc.subject.nhmReaction–difusionen_US
refterms.dateFOA2019-08-14T12:43:19Z


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