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dc.contributor.authorNash, David J
dc.contributor.authorCiborowski, T Jake R
dc.contributor.authorDarvill, Timothy
dc.contributor.authorParker Pearson, Mike
dc.contributor.authorUllyott, J Stewart
dc.contributor.authorDamaschke, Magret
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Jane A
dc.contributor.authorGoderis, Steven
dc.contributor.authorGreaney, Susan
dc.contributor.authorHuggett, Jennifer M
dc.contributor.authorIxer, Robert A
dc.contributor.authorPirrie, Duncan
dc.contributor.authorPower, Matthew R
dc.contributor.authorSalge, T
dc.contributor.authorWilkinson, Neil
dc.identifier.citationNash DJ, Ciborowski TJR, Darvill T, Parker Pearson M, Ullyott JS, Damaschke M, et al. (2021) Petrological and geochemical characterisation of the sarsen stones at Stonehenge. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0254760.
dc.description.abstractLittle is known of the properties of the sarsen stones (or silcretes) that comprise the main architecture of Stonehenge. The only studies of rock struck from the monument date from the 19th century, while 20th century investigations have focussed on excavated debris without demonstrating a link to specific megaliths. Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of sarsen samples taken directly from a Stonehenge megalith (Stone 58, in the centrally placed trilithon horseshoe). We apply state-of-the-art petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques to two cores drilled from the stone during conservation work in 1958. Petrographic analyses demonstrate that Stone 58 is a highly indurated, grain-supported, structureless and texturally mature groundwater silcrete, comprising fine-to-medium grained quartz sand cemented by optically-continuous syntaxial quartz overgrowths. In addition to detrital quartz, trace quantities of silica-rich rock fragments, Fe-oxides/hydroxides and other minerals are present. Cathodoluminescence analyses show that the quartz cement developed as an initial <10 μm thick zone of non-luminescing quartz followed by ~16 separate quartz cement growth zones. Late-stage Fe-oxides/hydroxides and Ti-oxides line and/or infill some pores. Automated mineralogical analyses indicate that the sarsen preserves 7.2 to 9.2 area % porosity as a moderately-connected intergranular network. Geochemical data show that the sarsen is chemically pure, comprising 99.7 wt. % SiO2. The major and trace element chemistry is highly consistent within the stone, with the only magnitude variations being observed in Fe content. Non-quartz accessory minerals within the silcrete host sediments impart a trace element signature distinct from standard sedimentary and other crustal materials. 143Nd/144Nd isotope analyses suggest that these host sediments were likely derived from eroded Mesozoic rocks, and that these Mesozoic rocks incorporated much older Mesoproterozoic material. The chemistry of Stone 58 has been identified recently as representative of 50 of the 52 remaining sarsens at Stonehenge. These results are therefore representative of the main stone type used to build what is arguably the most important Late Neolithic monument in Europe.en_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)en_US
dc.titlePetrological and geochemical characterisation of the sarsen stones at Stonehengeen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.identifier.journalPLOS ONEen_US
elements.import.authorNash, David J
elements.import.authorCiborowski, T Jake R
elements.import.authorDarvill, Timothy
elements.import.authorParker Pearson, Mike
elements.import.authorUllyott, J Stewart
elements.import.authorDamaschke, Magret
elements.import.authorEvans, Jane A
elements.import.authorGoderis, Steven
elements.import.authorGreaney, Susan
elements.import.authorHuggett, Jennifer M
elements.import.authorIxer, Robert A
elements.import.authorPirrie, Duncan
elements.import.authorPower, Matthew R
elements.import.authorSalge, Tobias
elements.import.authorWilkinson, Neil
dc.description.nhmCopyright: © 2021 Nash et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article.en_US
dc.subject.nhmtrace elementsen_US

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