Now showing items 21-40 of 799

    • A chromosomal analysis of Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Nepidae)

      Angus, RB; Jeangirard, C; Stoianova, D; Grozeva, S; Kuznetsova, VG (2017-09-14)
      An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae). A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂) / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀), whereas R. linearis had a karyotype comprising 19 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2X3X4Y (♂) / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀). In both N. cinerea and R. linearis, the autosomes formed chiasmate bivalents in spermatogenesis, and the sex chromosome univalents divided during the first meiotic division and segregated during the second one suggesting thus a post-reductional type of behaviour. These results confirm and amplify those of Steopoe (1925, 1927, 1931, 1932) but are inconsistent with those of other researchers. C-banding appeared helpful in pairing up the autosomes for karyotype assembly; however in R. linearis the chromosomes were much more uniform in size and general appearance than in N. cinerea. FISH for 18S ribosomal DNA (major rDNA) revealed hybridization signals on two of the five sex chromosomes in N. cinerea. In R. linearis, rDNA location was less obvious than in N. cinerea; however it is suggested to be similar. We have detected the presence of the canonical “insect” (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat in chromosomes of these species. This is the first application of C-banding and FISH in the family Nepidae.
    • Honeaite, a new gold-thallium-telluride from the Eastern Goldfields, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

      Rice, CM; Welch, MD; Still, JW; Criddle, AJ; Stanley, Christopher (2016-01-24)
      Honeaite, ideal formula Au3TlTe2, is a new mineral from the late Archaean Karonie gold deposit, Eastern Goldfields province, Western Australia. Honeaite is found with native gold, tellurobismuthite, petzite, hessite, calaverite, melonite, mattagamite, frohbergite, altaite, pyrrhotite and molybdenite. These minerals are concentrated in microvughs and microfractures mainly within areas of prehnite alteration of amphibolite. The mineralisation appears to have been deposited under greenschistfacies conditions at lower temperatures than most gold deposits in the Eastern Goldfields. Single-crystal X-ray studies identified the structure of honeaite as orthorhombic, space group Pbcm, and unit cell parameters a = 8.9671(4) Å, b = 8.8758(4) Å, c = 7.8419(5) Å, V = 624.14(6) Å3 (Z = 4). The strongest reflections of the calculated powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d in Å (I rel)(hkl)]: 2.938(100)(022), 2.905 (39,8)(322, 411), 2.989 (31)(300), 2.833 (23)(310), 1.853 (17)(332). Electron-microprobe analysis (EDS mode) gave (wt%) Au 56.33, Tl 19.68, Te 24.30, total 100.31, leading to an empirical formula (based on 2 Te apfu) of Au3.00Tl1.01Te2.00. Honeaite is black with a metallic lustre and no observed cleavage. The calculated density is 11.18 g/cm3. In reflected plane-polarized light it is slightly bluish grey. Between crossed polars it is weakly anisotropic with dark brown to dark blue rotation tints. Reflectance values in air and in oil are given. Honeaite is named after the late Russell M. Honea (1929–2002).
    • Annotated and illustrated world checklist of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

      Fernandez-Triana, J; Shaw, MR; Boudreault, C; Beaudin, M; Broad, G (Pensoft Publishers, 2020-03-23)
      A checklist of world species of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is provided. A total of 81 genera and 2,999 extant species are recognized as valid, including 36 nominal species that are currently considered as species inquirendae. Two genera are synonymized under Apanteles. Nine lectotypes are designated. A total of 318 new combinations, three new replacement names, three species name amendments, and seven species status revised are proposed. Additionally, three species names are treated as nomina dubia, and 52 species names are considered as unavailable names (including 14 as nomina nuda). A total of three extinct genera and 12 extinct species are also listed. Unlike in many previous treatments of the subfamily, tribal concepts are judged to be inadequate, so genera are listed alphabetically. Brief diagnoses of all Microgastrinae genera, as understood in this paper, are presented. Illustrations of all extant genera (at least one species per genus, usually more) are included to showcase morphological diversity. Primary types of Microgastrinae are deposited in 108 institutions worldwide, although 76% are concentrated in 17 collections. Localities of primary types, in 138 countries, are reported. Recorded species distributions are listed by biogeographical region and by country. Microgastrine wasps are recorded from all continents except Antarctica; specimens can be found in all major terrestrial ecosystems, from 82°N to 55°S, and from sea level up to at least 4,500 m a.s.l. The Oriental (46) and Neotropical (43) regions have the largest number of genera recorded, whereas the Palaearctic region (28) is the least diverse. Currently, the highest species richness is in the Palearctic region (827), due to more historical study there, followed by the Neotropical (768) and Oriental (752) regions, which are expected to be the most species rich. Based on ratios of Lepidoptera and Microgastrinae species from several areas, the actual world diversity of Microgastrinae is expected to be between 30,000–50,000 species; although these ratios were mostly based on data from temperate areas and thus must be treated with caution, the single tropical area included had a similar ratio to the temperate ones. Almost 45,000 specimens of Microgastrinae from 67 different genera (83% of microgastrine genera) have complete or partial DNA barcode sequences deposited in the Barcode of Life Data System; the DNA barcodes represent 3,545 putative species or Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), as estimated from the molecular data. Information on the number of sequences and BINs per genus are detailed in the checklist. Microgastrinae hosts are here considered to be restricted to Eulepidoptera, i.e., most of the Lepidoptera except for the four most basal superfamilies (Micropterigoidea, Eriocranioidea, Hepialoidea and Nepticuloidea), with all previous literature records of other insect orders and those primitive Lepidoptera lineages being considered incorrect. The following nomenclatural acts are proposed: 1) Two genera are synonymyzed under Apanteles: Cecidobracon Kieffer & Jörgensen, 1910, new synonym and Holcapanteles Cameron, 1905, new synonym; 2) Nine lectotype designations are made for Alphomelon disputabile (Ashmead, 1900), Alphomelon nigriceps (Ashmead, 1900), Cotesia salebrosa (Marshall, 1885), Diolcogaster xanthaspis (Ashmead, 1900), Dolichogenidea ononidis (Marshall, 1889), Glyptapanteles acraeae (Wilkinson, 1932), Glyptapanteles guyanensis (Cameron, 1911), Glyptapanteles militaris (Walsh, 1861), and Pseudapanteles annulicornis Ashmead, 1900; 3) Three new replacement names are a) Diolcogaster aurangabadensis Fernandez-Triana, replacing Diolcogaster indicus (Rao & Chalikwar, 1970) [nec Diolcogaster indicus (Wilkinson, 1927)], b) Dolichogenidea incystatae Fernandez-Triana, replacing Dolichogenidea lobesia Liu & Chen, 2019 [nec Dolichogenidea lobesia Fagan-Jeffries & Austin, 2019], and c) Microplitis vitobiasi Fernandez-Triana, replacing Microplitis variicolor Tobias, 1964 [nec Microplitis varicolor Viereck, 1917]; 4) Three names amended are Apanteles irenecarrilloae Fernandez-Triana, 2014, Cotesia ayerzai (Brèthes, 1920), and Cotesia riverai (Porter, 1916); 5) Seven species have their status revised: Cotesia arctica (Thomson, 1895), Cotesia okamotoi (Watanabe, 1921), Cotesia ukrainica (Tobias, 1986), Dolichogenidea appellator (Telenga, 1949), Dolichogenidea murinanae (Capek & Zwölfer, 1957), Hypomicrogaster acarnas Nixon, 1965, and Nyereria nigricoxis (Wilkinson, 1932); 6) New combinations are given for 318 species: Alloplitis congensis, Alloplitis detractus, Apanteles asphondyliae, Apanteles braziliensis, Apanteles sulciscutis, Choeras aper, Choeras apollion, Choeras daphne, Choeras fomes, Choeras gerontius, Choeras helle, Choeras irates, Choeras libanius, Choeras longiterebrus, Choeras loretta, Choeras recusans, Choeras sordidus, Choeras stenoterga, Choeras superbus, Choeras sylleptae, Choeras vacillatrix, Choeras vacillatropsis, Choeras venilia, Cotesia asavari, Cotesia bactriana, Cotesia bambeytripla, Cotesia berberidis, Cotesia bhairavi, Cotesia biezankoi, Cotesia bifida, Cotesia caligophagus, Cotesia cheesmanae, Cotesia compressithorax, Cotesia delphinensis, Cotesia effrena, Cotesia euphobetri, Cotesia elaeodes, Cotesia endii, Cotesia euthaliae, Cotesia exelastisae, Cotesia hiberniae, Cotesia hyperion, Cotesia hypopygialis, Cotesia hypsipylae, Cotesia jujubae, Cotesia lesbiae, Cotesia levigaster, Cotesia lizeri, Cotesia malevola, Cotesia malshri, Cotesia menezesi, Cotesia muzaffarensis, Cotesia neptisis, Cotesia nycteus, Cotesia oeceticola, Cotesia oppidicola, Cotesia opsiphanis, Cotesia pachkuriae, Cotesia paludicolae, Cotesia parbhanii, Cotesia parvicornis, Cotesia pratapae, Cotesia prozorovi, Cotesia pterophoriphagus, Cotesia radiarytensis, Cotesia rangii, Cotesia riverai, Cotesia ruficoxis, Cotesia senegalensis, Cotesia seyali, Cotesia sphenarchi, Cotesia sphingivora, Cotesia transuta, Cotesia turkestanica, Diolcogaster abengouroui, Diolcogaster agama, Diolcogaster ambositrensis, Diolcogaster anandra, Diolcogaster annulata, Diolcogaster bambeyi, Diolcogaster bicolorina, Diolcogaster cariniger, Diolcogaster cincticornis, Diolcogaster cingulata, Diolcogaster coronata, Diolcogaster coxalis, Diolcogaster dipika, Diolcogaster earina, Diolcogaster epectina, Diolcogaster epectinopsis, Diolcogaster grangeri, Diolcogaster heterocera, Diolcogaster homocera, Diolcogaster indica, Diolcogaster insularis, Diolcogaster kivuana, Diolcogaster mediosulcata, Diolcogaster megaulax, Diolcogaster neglecta, Diolcogaster nigromacula, Diolcogaster palpicolor, Diolcogaster persimilis, Diolcogaster plecopterae, Diolcogaster plutocongoensis, Diolcogaster psilocnema, Diolcogaster rufithorax, Diolcogaster semirufa, Diolcogaster seyrigi, Diolcogaster subtorquata, Diolcogaster sulcata, Diolcogaster torquatiger, Diolcogaster tristiculus, Diolcogaster turneri, Diolcogaster vulcana, Diolcogaster wittei, Distatrix anthedon, Distatrix cerales, Distatrix cuspidalis, Distatrix euproctidis, Distatrix flava, Distatrix geometrivora, Distatrix maia, Distatrix tookei, Distatrix termina, Distatrix simulissima, Dolichogenidea agamedes, Dolichogenidea aluella, Dolichogenidea argiope, Dolichogenidea atreus, Dolichogenidea bakeri, Dolichogenidea basiflava, Dolichogenidea bersa, Dolichogenidea biplagae, Dolichogenidea bisulcata, Dolichogenidea catonix, Dolichogenidea chrysis, Dolichogenidea coffea, Dolichogenidea coretas, Dolichogenidea cyane, Dolichogenidea diaphantus, Dolichogenidea diparopsidis, Dolichogenidea dryas, Dolichogenidea earterus, Dolichogenidea ensiger, Dolichogenidea eros, Dolichogenidea evadne, Dolichogenidea falcator, Dolichogenidea gelechiidivoris, Dolichogenidea gobica, Dolichogenidea hyalinis, Dolichogenidea iriarte, Dolichogenidea lakhaensis, Dolichogenidea lampe, Dolichogenidea laspeyresiella, Dolichogenidea latistigma, Dolichogenidea lebene, Dolichogenidea lucidinervis, Dolichogenidea malacosomae, Dolichogenidea maro, Dolichogenidea mendosae, Dolichogenidea monticola, Dolichogenidea nigra, Dolichogenidea olivierellae, Dolichogenidea parallelis, Dolichogenidea pelopea, Dolichogenidea pelops, Dolichogenidea phaenna, Dolichogenidea pisenor, Dolichogenidea roepkei, Dolichogenidea scabra, Dolichogenidea statius, Dolichogenidea stenotelas, Dolichogenidea striata, Dolichogenidea wittei, Exoryza asotae, Exoryza belippicola, Exoryza hylas, Exoryza megagaster, Exoryza oryzae, Glyptapanteles aggestus, Glyptapanteles agynus, Glyptapanteles aithos, Glyptapanteles amenophis, Glyptapanteles antarctiae, Glyptapanteles anubis, Glyptapanteles arginae, Glyptapanteles argus, Glyptapanteles atylana, Glyptapanteles badgleyi, Glyptapanteles bataviensis, Glyptapanteles bistonis, Glyptapanteles borocerae, Glyptapanteles cacao, Glyptapanteles cadei, Glyptapanteles cinyras, Glyptapanteles eryphanidis, Glyptapanteles euproctisiphagus, Glyptapanteles eutelus, Glyptapanteles fabiae, Glyptapanteles fulvigaster, Glyptapanteles fuscinervis, Glyptapanteles gahinga, Glyptapanteles globatus, Glyptapanteles glyphodes, Glyptapanteles guierae, Glyptapanteles horus, Glyptapanteles intricatus, Glyptapanteles lamprosemae, Glyptapanteles lefevrei, Glyptapanteles leucotretae, Glyptapanteles lissopleurus, Glyptapanteles madecassus, Glyptapanteles marquesi, Glyptapanteles melanotus, Glyptapanteles melissus, Glyptapanteles merope, Glyptapanteles naromae, Glyptapanteles nepitae, Glyptapanteles nigrescens, Glyptapanteles ninus, Glyptapanteles nkuli, Glyptapanteles parasundanus, Glyptapanteles penelope, Glyptapanteles penthocratus, Glyptapanteles philippinensis, Glyptapanteles philocampus, Glyptapanteles phoebe, Glyptapanteles phytometraduplus, Glyptapanteles propylae, Glyptapanteles puera, Glyptapanteles seydeli, Glyptapanteles siderion, Glyptapanteles simus, Glyptapanteles speciosissimus, Glyptapanteles spilosomae, Glyptapanteles subpunctatus, Glyptapanteles thespis, Glyptapanteles thoseae, Glyptapanteles venustus, Glyptapanteles wilkinsoni, Hypomicrogaster samarshalli, Iconella cajani, Iconella detrectans, Iconella jason, Iconella lynceus, Iconella pyrene, Iconella tedanius, Illidops azamgarhensis, Illidops lamprosemae, Illidops trabea, Keylimepie striatus, Microplitis adisurae, Microplitis mexicanus, Neoclarkinella ariadne, Neoclarkinella curvinervus, Neoclarkinella sundana, Nyereria ituriensis, Nyereria nioro, Nyereria proagynus, Nyereria taoi, Nyereria vallatae, Parapanteles aethiopicus, Parapanteles alternatus, Parapanteles aso, Parapanteles atellae, Parapanteles bagicha, Parapanteles cleo, Parapanteles cyclorhaphus, Parapanteles demades, Parapanteles endymion, Parapanteles epiplemicidus, Parapanteles expulsus, Parapanteles fallax, Parapanteles folia, Parapanteles furax, Parapanteles hemitheae, Parapanteles hyposidrae, Parapanteles indicus, Parapanteles javensis, Parapanteles jhaverii, Parapanteles maculipalpis, Parapanteles maynei, Parapanteles neocajani, Parapanteles neohyblaeae, Parapanteles nydia, Parapanteles prosper, Parapanteles prosymna, Parapanteles punctatissimus, Parapanteles regalis, Parapanteles sarpedon, Parapanteles sartamus, Parapanteles scultena, Parapanteles transvaalensis, Parapanteles turri, Parapanteles xanthopholis, Pholetesor acutus, Pholetesor brevivalvatus, Pholetesor extentus, Pholetesor ingenuoides, Pholetesor kuwayamai, Promicrogaster apidanus, Promicrogaster briareus, Promicrogaster conopiae, Promicrogaster emesa, Promicrogaster grandicula, Promicrogaster orsedice, Promicrogaster repleta, Promicrogaster typhon, Sathon bekilyensis, Sathon flavofacialis, Sathon laurae, Sathon mikeno, Sathon ruandanus, Sathon rufotestaceus, Venanides astydamia, Venanides demeter, Venanides parmula, and Venanides symmysta.
    • The potential of the solitary parasitoid Microctonus brassicae for the biological control of the adult cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala

      Jordan, A; Broad, G; Stigenberg, J; Hughes, J; Stone, J; Bedford, I; Penfield, S; Wells, R (Wiley, 2020-05-15)
      The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae), within the UK and continental Europe. Following the withdrawal of many broad‐spectrum pesticides, most importantly neonicotinoids, and with increased incidence of pyrethroid resistance, few chemical control options remain, resulting in the need for alternative pest management strategies. We identified the parasitoid wasp Microctonus brassicae (Haeselbarth) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) within CSFB collected from three independent sites in Norfolk, UK. Parasitism of adult CSFB was confirmed, and wasp oviposition behaviour was described. Moreover, we show that within captive colonies parasitism rates are sufficient to generate significant biological control of CSFB populations. A sequence of the M. brassicae mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (MT‐CO1) gene was generated for rapid future identification. Moroccan specimens of Microctonus aethiopoides (Loan), possessing 90% sequence similarity, were the closest identified sequenced species. This study represents the first description published in English of this parasitoid of the adult cabbage stem flea beetle.
    • Monitoring water-chemistry evolution in the bentonite buffer using magnets: Effects of corrosion on buffer stability

      Mavris, C; Rigonat, N; Harley, S; Butler, IB (Clay Minerals Society, 2016-01-01)
      Bentonite has been chosen as a buffer material by several national nuclear-waste management companies because of its swelling capacity and low water permeability, and because it retards the transport of radionuclides and corrosion products toward the geosphere. The aim of the present study was to develop a magnetic material that has the ability to detect changes in groundwater compositions in an underground nucleardeposit facility through variation in its magnetic properties with time. The present study has investigated the effect of the corrosion of NdFeB magnets on the Na-bentonite buffer under different environmental conditions. Seven different aqueous solutions were used for long-time exposure tests (708C, 5 months) with fragments of NdFeB magnets and powdered Na-bentonite. The corrosion of NdFeB alloy had no detectable effect on the mineralogy of the clay minerals, and any change on the bentonite matrix, measured through X-ray diffraction analysis, was related to the different initial chemistry of the solutions.
    • Morphological convergence in "river dolphin" skulls

      Page, CE; Cooper, N (PeerJ Inc., 2017-11-21)
      Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer) do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the ‘river dolphins’ as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four ‘river dolphin’ genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the ‘river dolphins’ and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the ‘river dolphins’. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.
    • Early colonisation of urban indoor carcasses by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): An experimental study from central Spain

      Martin-Vega, D; Martín Nieto, C; Cifrián, B; Baz, A; Díaz-Aranda, LM (Elsevier, 2017-09-01)
      Due to their ubiquity and synanthropy, blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are generally the first colonisers of cadavers and, therefore, frequently used to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (minPMI). Whereas in outdoor situations blow flies are expected to locate and colonise exposed cadavers within hours or even minutes after death, it is usually assumed that the colonisation of a cadaver indoors might be delayed for an uncertain period of time. This uncertainty severely limits the informativity of minPMI estimates based on entomological evidence. Moreover, these limitations are emphasised by the lack of experimental data on insect colonisation of indoor carrion and by the fact that most of the forensic cases involving entomological evidence have been reported to occur indoors. In this study we investigate the early colonisation of pig carcasses placed indoors in a building located in the centre of an urban environment in central Spain. Three carcasses were placed in three equal rooms with a window half opened during five experimental trials: summer 2013, autumn 2013, winter 2014, spring 2014 and summer 2014. The species composition and their contribution to the carrion colonisation differed among seasons. Calliphora vicina Robineau–Desvoidy was the sole coloniser of carcasses in winter and colonised the carcasses within the first 24–48 h in every season, although Lucilia sericata (Meigen) was the first coloniser of most summer carcasses. On the other hand, Calliphora vomitoria (L.) and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) colonised the carcasses significantly later in spring and in spring and summer, respectively, with a delay of several days. In autumn, however, there were no significant differences in the colonisation times by C. vicina, L. sericata and Ch. albiceps. C. vicina and L. sericata showed a clear preference for ovipositing in the natural orifices of the carcasses, whereas Ch. albiceps oviposited more frequently on the trunk and legs.
    • The Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculata: as dead as a Dodo, but what else do we know about it?

      van Grouw, Hein (British Ornithologists' Club, 2014-12-01)
      Described in 1783 and since then re-examined by many notable ornithologists, the single specimen known as the ‘Spotted Green Pigeon’ Caloenas maculata in the collections of the World Museum, Liverpool, has always been a mystery. No-one has ever doubted that it is a pigeon, and many researchers were convinced it was a distinct species. Although its taxonomic status remained unclear, it was officially declared extinct by BirdLife International in early 2008. Recent DNA analysis has now revealed that Spotted Green Pigeon can indeed be considered a distinct species within the extended Dodo Raphus cucullatus clade of morphologically very diverse pigeon species. Most members of this clade exhibit terrestrial or semi-terrestrial habits. Further morphological research into this unique specimen, initiated by the World Museum, demonstrates that Spotted Green Pigeon, in contrast to its fellow clade members, may have possessed strongly arboreal habits.
    • Colour aberrations in extinct and endangered birds

      Hume, JP; van Grouw, Hein (British Ornithologists' Club, 2014-09-01)
      Several groups of birds have suffered high extinction rates, especially rails, pigeons, parrots and passerines. Some island species that disappeared in the early 19th century, e.g. Lord Howe Gallinule Porphyrio albus, Rodrigues Parakeet Psittacula exsul and Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarinus, are known from only a few skins and illustrations, whereas the Huia Heteralocha acutirostris of New Zealand is known from hundreds of specimens. Furthermore, two North American species—Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius and Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis—which became extinct in the early 20th century, are also represented by hundreds of specimens. Other supposedly extinct bird species are enigmatic. Confusion exists concerning the unique specimens of Sharpe’s Rail Gallirallus sharpei and Townsend’s Bunting Spiza townsendi, paintings of a parrot from the West Indies and an aberrant white Huia, as well as aberrant specimens of the Critically Endangered Kakapo Strigops habroptilus. Much has been written concerning these birds and why they became extinct, or have become extremely rare, but few data are available concerning colour aberrations in certain specimens; the literature is also riddled with incorrect terminology. This paper addresses this shortfall and describes the various colour aberrations in these extinct and endangered birds and why they have occurred.
    • The planthopper genus Spartidelphax, a new segregate of Nearctic Delphacodes (Hemiptera, Delphacidae)

      Bartlett, C; Webb, M (2014-11-10)
      The new genus Spartidelphax is described to house three species removed from the polyphyletic genus Delphacodes. The members of Spartidelphax are coastal species native to eastern North America, and probably feed exclusively on cordgrass (Poaceae, Spartina Schreb.). The taxonomy and nomenclature of the included species (viz. S. detectus, S. luteivittus, and S. penedetectus) are reviewed. Spartidelphax luteivittus is a nomen dubium, whose type material is inadequate to provide diagnostic features contrasting with S. detectus and S. penedetectus. Diagnoses and a key are provided for the remaining Spartidelphax.
    • A new specimen of the ornithischian dinosaur Hesperosaurus mjosi from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Montana, U.S.A., and implications for growth and size in Morrison stegosaurs

      Maidment, Susannah; Woodruff, DC; Horner, JR (Informa UK Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Stegosauria is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs characterized by a bizarre array of dermal armor that extends from the neck to the end of the tail. Two genera of stegosaur are currently recognised from North America: the well-known Stegosaurus stenops and the much rarer Hesperosaurus mjosi. A new specimen of Hesperosaurus mjosi was discovered in some of the most northerly outcrops of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation near Livingston, Montana. The new specimen includes cranial, vertebral, and appendicular material as well as a dermal plate, and the excellent state of preservation of the palate reveals new anatomical information about this region in stegosaurs. Histological examination of the tibia indicates that the individual was not skeletally mature at time of death. Comparison with previously studied Stegosaurus and Hesperosaurus individuals indicates that Hesperosaurus mjosi may have been a smaller species than Stegosaurus stenops. Physiological processes scale with body mass, M, according to the relationship M0.75 in extant megaherbivores; thus, larger animals are better able to cope with more arid environments where forage is less abundant. Under this scenario, it is possible that Stegosaurus stenops and Hesperosaurus mjosi were environmentally partitioned, with the larger S. stenops occupying more arid environments. Analyses of the temporal overlap and latitudinal range of Morrison stegosaurs would allow this hypothesis to be investigated.
    • Identification Trainers for the Future - Inspiring the Next Generation of UK Wildlife Experts

      West, SVL; Tweddle, JC (The Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management, 2014-12-01)
      The Natural History Museum is one of the world’s foremost institutions for the advancement of the natural sciences. The Museum’s Angela Marmont Centre for UK Biodiversity acts as a centre to promote the appreciation and study of UK natural history and a hub for partnership-based UK natural history engagement, training and research. Through a new project called Identification Trainers forthe Future, the Centre aims to actively address a critical and growing skills shortage within the UK biodiversity sector: wildlife identification and recording skills. This will be achieved through a number of placements offering early-career ecologists specialist training in species identification and survey, museum curatorial skills, training delivery and broader transferable skills.
    • Sustained fluvial deposition recorded in Mars’ Noachian stratigraphic record

      Salese, F; McMahon, WJ; Balme, MR; Ansan, V; Davis, Joel; Kleinhans, MG (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-05)
      Orbital observation has revealed a rich record of fluvial landforms on Mars, with much of this record dating 3.6–3.0 Ga. Despite widespread geomorphic evidence, few analyses of Mars’ alluvial sedimentary-stratigraphic record exist, with detailed studies of alluvium largely limited to smaller sand-bodies amenable to study in-situ by rovers. These typically metre-scale outcrop dimensions have prevented interpretation of larger scale channel-morphology and long-term basin evolution, vital for understanding the past Martian climate. Here we give an interpretation of a large sedimentary succession at Izola mensa within the NW Hellas Basin rim. The succession comprises channel and barform packages which together demonstrate that river deposition was already well established >3.7 Ga. The deposits mirror terrestrial analogues subject to low-peak discharge variation, implying that river deposition at Izola was subject to sustained, potentially perennial, fluvial flow. Such conditions would require an environment capable of maintaining large volumes of water for extensive time-periods, necessitating a precipitation-driven hydrological cycle.
    • Aram Dorsum: An Extensive Mid‐Noachian Age Fluvial Depositional System in Arabia Terra, Mars

      Balme, MR; Gupta, S; Davis, Joel; Fawdon, P; M. Grindrod, P; Bridges, JC; Sefton‐Nash, E; Williams, RME (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2020-04-15)
      A major debate in Mars science is the nature of the early Mars climate, and the availability ofprecipitation and runoff. Observations of relict erosional valley networks have been proposed as evidencefor extensive surface runoff around the Noachian‐Hesperian boundary. However, these valley networks onlyprovide a time‐integrated record of landscape evolution, and thus, the timing, relative timescales andintensity of aqueous activity required to erode the valleys remain unknown. Here, we investigate an ancientfluvial sedimentary system in western Arabia Terra, now preserved in positive relief. This ridge, “AramDorsum,” is flat‐topped, branching, ~85 km long, and particularly well preserved. We show that AramDorsum was an aggradational alluvial system and that the existing ridge was once a large river channel beltset in extensive flood plains, many of which are still preserved. Smaller, palaeochannel belts feed themain system; their setting and network pattern suggest a distributed source of water. The alluvial successionis up to 60 m thick, suggesting a formation time of 105to 107years by analogy to Earth. Our observationsare consistent with Aram Dorsum having formed by long‐lived flows of water, sourced both locally, andregionally as part of a wider alluvial system in Arabia Terra. This suggests frequent or seasonal precipitationas the source of water. Correlating our observations with previous regional‐scale mapping shows thatAram Dorsum formed in the mid‐Noachian. Aram Dorsum is one of the oldest fluvial systems described onMars and indicates climatic conditions that sustained surface river flows on early Mars.
    • Anglers’ Riverfly Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): A UK-wide citizen science project for water quality assessment

      Brooks, Stephen J.; Fitch, Ben; Davy-Bowker, John; Codesal, Soraya Alvarez (University of Chicago Press, 2019-04-11)
      The Anglers’ Riverfly Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a UK-wide citizen science project focused on river water quality assessment. There are currently >2000 ARMI volunteers monitoring >1600 sites that are organized into 35 regional hubs across the UK. ARMI is effective in the early detection of water pollution and complements the routine monitoring undertaken by the UK statutory environment agencies. ARMI volunteers are trained to take standardized 3-min kick-samples of freshwater invertebrates from a river site, and use these samples to produce an ARMI score based on the abundance of key pollution-sensitive taxa. ARMI scores and standard invertebrate monitoring metrics are closely correlated. Each sampling site has a ‘trigger level’ score set by the national regulatory authority—e.g., the Environment Agency (EA) in England. If the ARMI score falls below this trigger level, the regulatory authority is notified and agency officers investigate the cause of the low score. This process has resulted in many reports of pollution incidents that otherwise may have gone undiscovered but were instead rapidly detected and neutralized. In some cases, investigations resulted in fines being levied against those responsible. ARMI data have also proved useful in assessing the effectiveness of river restoration schemes. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARMI as a structured citizen science program in enhancing the environmental protection of rivers. We also show that the ARMI program complements the work of statutory authorities and describe how it promotes community engagement with river environments.
    • What Colour Is That Sparrow? A Case Study: Colour Aberrations In The House Sparrow Passer Domesticus

      van Grouw, Hein (De Gruyter, 2012-01-01)
      In this paper 16 distinct, heritable colour aberrations (mutations) in the House Sparrow are described, based on specimens found in museum collections, records of individuals seen in the wild and from bird breeders keeping aberrant coloured sparrows in captivity. Based on the frequency found in the museum specimens Brown is the most common mutation in the House Sparrow, followed by Ino and Albino. Besides the mutations there is also a, presumably, non-heritable aberration called Progressive Greying described. Progressive Greying is in fact by far the most common colour aberration found in the species but was, in the past, always assigned as ‘Partial Albino’ without its real nature being understood. This paper will give some insight in the nature of Progressive Greying.
    • Detecting foraminiferal photosymbionts in the fossil record: a combined micropalaeontological and geochemical approach

      Bhatia, R; Wade, B; Hilding-Kronforst, S; Spratt, J; Leng, M; Thornalley, D (2016-08-30)
    • The marine mollusc collection at the Natural History Museum, London

      Salvador, A (2016-07-01)
      The Natural History Museum, London holds one of the largest and most important collections of molluscs in the world with an estimate 8 million specimens. The marine collection includes around 40,000 type lots for the phylum, mainly from the collections of Cuming, Sowerby, Smith, Gray, Adams, Melvill, Hinds, Carpenter, d’Orbigny, to name a few. As well as the scientific importance of the collections, a wealth of material originating with Sloane, Banks, Cook, Darwin, Lyell, Cracherode and Montagu gives an unparalleled historic dimension to our holdings. A dedicated library of over 6,000 bound volumes and 30,000 reprints on molluscs, dating from the 17th century, provides an incredibly accessible source of information to support collections, curation and research.
    • Käfer (Coleoptera) im Gebiet des Furkapasses, Kantone Uri und Wallis

      Germann, C; Geiser, M; Luka, H; Sprecher, E; Schatz, I (Swiss Entomological Society, 2015-01-01)
      Beetles (Coleoptera) in the region of the Furkapass (cantons Uri and Valais). – One hundred eleven species of beetles were identified in the region of the Furkapass (2300–2700 ma.s.l.). This species richness is high compared to that of similar biotopes in the Swiss Alps. The records of Psylliodes schwarzi Weise, 1900, Mycetoporus inaris Luze, 1901 and Cratosilis distinguenda (Baudi, 1859) on the northern side of the Alps are remarkable.