Now showing items 21-40 of 1011

    • Parallel evolution of complex centipede venoms

      Jenner, Ronald; von Reumont, Bjoern; Campbell, Lahcen; Undheim, Eivind (Elsevier BV, 2020-07-09)
    • Ecology drives patterns of spectral transmission in the ocular lenses of frogs and salamanders

      Thomas, Kate; Gower, DJ; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Bell, Rayna C; Fujita, Matthew K; Schott, Ryan K; Liedtke, H Christoph; Haddad, Célio FB; Becker, C Guilherme; Cox, Christian L; et al. (Wiley, 2022-04-05)
      1. The spectral characteristics of vertebrate ocular lenses affect the image of the world that is projected onto the retina, and thus help shape diverse visual capabilities. Here, we tested whether amphibian lens transmission is driven by adaptation to diurnal activity (bright light) and/or scansorial habits (complex visual environments). 2. Spectral transmission through the lenses of 79 species of frogs and six species of salamanders was measured, and data for 29 additional frog species compiled from published literature. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test ecological explanations of variation in lens transmission and to test for selection across traits. 3.Lenses of diurnal (day-active) and scansorial (climbing) frogs transmitted significantly less shortwave light than those of non-diurnal or non-scansorial amphibians, and evolutionary modelling suggested that these differences have resulted from differential selection. 4. The presence of shortwave-transparent lenses was common among the sampled amphibians, which implies that many are sensitive to shortwave light to some degree even in the absence of visual pigments maximally sensitive in the UV. This suggests that shortwave light, including UV, could play an important role in amphibian behaviour and ecology. 5 5. Shortwave-absorbing lens pigments likely provide higher visual acuity to diurnally active frogs of multiple ecologies and to nocturnally active scansorial frogs. This new mechanistic understanding of amphibian visual systems suggests that shortwave-filtering lenses are adaptive not only in daylight conditions but also in those scotopic conditions where high acuity is advantageous.
    • Miniaturization in Direct-Developing Frogs from Mexico with the Description of Six New Species

      Jameson, Tom JM; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Manuelli, Luigi; Head, Jason J; Smith, Eric N (Herpetologists League, 2022-04-04)
      The Craugastor mexicanus series (Anura: Craugastoridae) includes six species of direct-developing frogs that occur in Mexico and Guatemala. Notably, two of these species have small adult body sizes (<18 mm snout to vent length) and several have intraspecific polymorphism in color pattern. Using a geographic sampling focused on eastern Mexico (the location of most type localities), we conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial (12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG1, TYR) gene fragments. This analysis revealed two widespread species, C. mexicanus and C. pygmaeus, along with evidence of multiple undescribed taxa from the states of Oaxaca, Mexico, Guerrero, and Jalisco. Interestingly, the widespread species have stratified geographic distributions with the larger bodied clade restricted to high elevations and the smaller bodied clade to low elevations. We also identify regions of Guerrero and Oaxaca where multiple species co-occur. To reevaluate the quality of characters that have been previously used to diagnose species, we tested for heterochrony and sexual dimorphism using microcomputed tomography and linear measurements. We found evidence for paedomorphosis as the mechanism of miniaturization in small-bodied taxa. Linear measurements confirmed that tympanum and body size are sexually dimorphic traits in both small- and large-bodied species. We used this enhanced understanding of morphological variation in the group to describe six new species. Despite this progress, we suspect that additional species await discovery, particularly in western Mexico and east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where our sampling efforts were limited.
    • Venomics of Remipede Crustaceans Reveals Novel Peptide Diversity and Illuminates the Venom’s Biological Role

      von Reumont, Björn; Undheim, Eivind; Jauss, Robin-Tobias; Jenner, Ronald (MDPI AG, 2017-07-26)
      We report the first integrated proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of a crustacean venom. Remipede crustaceans are the venomous sister group of hexapods, and the venom glands of the remipede Xibalbanus tulumensis express a considerably more complex cocktail of proteins and peptides than previously thought. We identified 32 venom protein families, including 13 novel peptide families that we name xibalbins, four of which lack similarities to any known structural class. Our proteomic data confirm the presence in the venom of 19 of the 32 families. The most highly expressed venom components are serine peptidases, chitinase and six of the xibalbins. The xibalbins represent Inhibitory Cystine Knot peptides (ICK), a double ICK peptide, peptides with a putative Cystine-stabilized α-helix/β-sheet motif, a peptide similar to hairpin-like β-sheet forming antimicrobial peptides, two peptides related to different hormone families, and four peptides with unique structural motifs. Remipede venom components represent the full range of evolutionary recruitment frequencies, from families that have been recruited into many animal venoms (serine peptidases, ICKs), to those having a very narrow taxonomic range (double ICKs), to those unique for remipedes. We discuss the most highly expressed venom components to shed light on their possible functional significance in the predatory and defensive use of remipede venom, and to provide testable ideas for any future bioactivity studies.
    • Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke

      Jenner, Ronald (Wiley, 2017-12-06)
      Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge. The purpose of this article is to correct the widespread misplaced rejection of linear evolutionary imagery, and to re-emphasize the basic truth that the evolutionary process is fundamentally linear.
    • Evolutionary Ecology of Fish Venom: Adaptations and Consequences of Evolving a Venom System

      Harris, Richard J; Jenner, Ronald (MDPI AG, 2019-01-22)
      Research on venomous animals has mainly focused on the molecular, biochemical, and pharmacological aspects of venom toxins. However, it is the relatively neglected broader study of evolutionary ecology that is crucial for understanding the biological relevance of venom systems. As fish have convergently evolved venom systems multiple times, it makes them ideal organisms to investigate the evolutionary ecology of venom on a broader scale. This review outlines what is known about how fish venom systems evolved as a result of natural enemy interactions and about the ecological consequences of evolving a venom system. This review will show how research on the evolutionary ecology of venom in fish can aid in understanding the evolutionary ecology of animal venoms more generally. Further, understanding these broad ecological questions can shed more light on the other areas of toxinology, with applications across multiple disciplinary fields.
    • Nanopore Sequencing Resolves Elusive Long Tandem-Repeat Regions in Mitochondrial Genomes

      Kinkar, Liina; Gasser, Robin; Webster, BL; Rollinson, D; Littlewood, T; Chang, Bill; Stroehlein, Andreas; Korhonen, Pasi; Young, Neil (MDPI AG, 2021-02-11)
      Long non-coding, tandem-repetitive regions in mitochondrial (mt) genomes of many metazoans have been notoriously difficult to characterise accurately using conventional sequencing methods. Here, we show how the use of a third-generation (long-read) sequencing and informatic approach can overcome this problem. We employed Oxford Nanopore technology to sequence genomic DNAs from a pool of adult worms of the carcinogenic parasite, Schistosoma haematobium, and used an informatic workflow to define the complete mt non-coding region(s). Using long-read data of high coverage, we defined six dominant mt genomes of 33.4 kb to 22.6 kb. Although no variation was detected in the order or lengths of the protein-coding genes, there was marked length (18.5 kb to 7.6 kb) and structural variation in the non-coding region, raising questions about the evolution and function of what might be a control region that regulates mt transcription and/or replication. The discovery here of the largest tandem-repetitive, non-coding region (18.5 kb) in a metazoan organism also raises a question about the completeness of some of the mt genomes of animals reported to date, and stimulates further explorations using a Nanopore-informatic workflow.
    • Comparative analyses of glycerotoxin expression unveil a novel structural organization of the bloodworm venom system

      Richter, Sandy; Helm, Conrad; Meunier, Frederic A; Hering, Lars; Campbell, Lahcen I; Drukewitz, Stephan H; Undheim, Eivind AB; Jenner, Ronald; Schiavo, Giampietro; Bleidorn, Christoph (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-03-04)
      Background: We present the first molecular characterization of glycerotoxin (GLTx), a potent neurotoxin found in the venom of the bloodworm Glycera tridactyla (Glyceridae, Annelida). Within the animal kingdom, GLTx shows a unique mode of action as it can specifically up-regulate the activity of Ca<sub>v</sub>2.2 channels (N-type) in a reversible manner. The lack of sequence information has so far hampered a detailed understanding of its mode of action. Results: Our analyses reveal three ~3.8 kb GLTx full-length transcripts, show that GLTx represents a multigene family, and suggest it functions as a dimer. An integrative approach using transcriptomics, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry shows that GLTx is highly expressed exclusively in four pharyngeal lobes, a previously unrecognized part of the venom apparatus. Conclusions: Our results overturn a century old textbook view on the glycerid venom system, suggesting that it is anatomically and functionally much more complex than previously thought. The herein presented GLTx sequence information constitutes an important step towards the establishment of GLTx as a versatile tool to understand the mechanism of synaptic function, as well as the mode of action of this novel neurotoxin.
    • A Pseudoscorpion's Promising Pinch: The venom of Chelifer cancroides contains a rich source of novel compounds

      Krämer, Jonas; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Jenner, Ronald; van Toor, Ronald; Predel, Reinhard (Elsevier BV, 2021-08-18)
      With pedipalps modified for venom injection, some pseudoscorpions possess a unique venom delivery system, which evolved independently from those of other arachnids like scorpions and spiders. Up to now, only a few studies have been focused on pseudoscorpion venom, which either identified a small fraction of venom compounds, or were based on solely transcriptomic approaches. Only one study addressed the bioactivity of pseudoscorpion venom. Here, we expand existing knowledge about pseudoscorpion venom by providing a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the venom of Chelifer cancroides. We identified the first putative genuine toxins in the venom of C. cancroides and we showed that a large fraction of the venom comprises novel compounds. In addition, we tested the activity of the venom at specific ion channels for the first time. These tests demonstrate that the venom of C. cancroides causes inhibition of a voltage-gated insect potassium channel (Shaker IR) and modulates the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels from Varroa destructor. For one of the smallest venomous animals ever studied, today's toolkits enabled a comprehensive venom analysis. This is demonstrated by allocating our identified venom compounds to more than half of the prominent ion signals in MALDI-TOF mass spectra of venom samples. The present study is a starting point for understanding the complex composition and activity of pseudoscorpion venom and provides a potential rich source of bioactive compounds useable for basic research and industrial application.
    • Crystal structure and investigation of Bi2TeO6·nH2O (0 ≤ n ≤ 2/3): natural and synthetic montanite

      Missen, Owen P; Mills, Stuart J; Rumsey, Michael S; Weil, Matthias; Artner, Werner; Spratt, J; Najorka, J (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-06-09)
      The crystal structure of montanite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction on a synthetic sample, supported by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Montanite was first described in 1868 as Bi2TeO6·nH2O (0 ≤ n ≤ 2/3). The determination of the crystal structure of synthetic montanite (refined composition Bi2TeO6·0.22H2O has led to the reassignment of the formula to Bi2TeO6·0.22H2O where 0 ≤ n ≤ 2∕3 rather than the commonly reported Bi2TeO6·2H2O. This change has been accepted by the IMA–CNMNC, Proposal 22-A. The PXRD pattern simulated from the crystal structure of synthetic montanite is a satisfactory match for PXRD scans collected on both historical and recent natural samples, showing their equivalence. Two specimens attributed to the original discoverer of montanite (Frederick A. Genth) from the cotype localities (Highland Mining District, Montana and David Beck’s mine, North Carolina, USA) have been designated as neotypes. Montanite crystallises in space group P6, with the unit-cell parameters a = 9.1195(14) Å, c = 5.5694(8) Å, V = 401.13(14) Å3, and three formula units in the unit cell. The crystal structure of montanite is formed from a framework of BiOn and TeO6 polyhedra. Half of the Bi3+ and all of the Te+ cations are coordinated by six oxygen atoms in trigonal-prismatic arrangements (the first example of this configuration reported for Te6+, while the remaining Bi3+ cations are coordinated by seven O sites. The H2O groups in montanite are structurally incorporated into the network of cavities formed by the three-dimensional framework, with other cavity space occupied by the stereoactive 6s2 lone pair of Bi3+ cations. While evidence for a supercell was observed in synthetic montanite, the subcell refinement of montanite adequately indexes all reflections in the PXRD patterns observed in all natural montanite samples analysed in this study, verifying the identity of montanite as a mineral.
    • Analysis of ultraconserved elements supports African origins of narrow-mouthed frogs

      Streicher, Jeffrey W; Loader, Simon; Varela-Jaramillo, Andrea; Montoya, Paola; de Sá, Rafael O (Elsevier BV, 2020-02)
      Narrow-mouthed frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) are globally distributed and molecular data suggest the rapid evolution of multiple subfamilies shortly after their origin. Despite recent progress, several subfamilial relationships remain unexplored using phylogenomic data. We analysed 1,796 nuclear ultraconserved elements, a total matrix of 400,664 nucleotides, from representatives of most microhylid subfamilies. Summary method species-tree and maximum likelihood analyses unambiguously supported Hoplophryninae as the earliest diverging microhylid and confirm Chaperininae as a junior synonym of Microhylinae. Given the emerging consensus that subfamilies from mainland Africa diverged early, microhylids have likely occupied the continent for more than 66 million years.
    • Heterochrony and parallel evolution of echinoderm, hemichordate and cephalochordate internal bars

      Álvarez-Armada, Nidia; Cameron, Christopher B; Bauer, Jennifer E; Rahman, Imran (The Royal Society, 2022-05-11)
      Deuterostomes comprise three phyla with radically different body plans. Phylogenetic bracketing of the living deuterostome clades suggests the latest common ancestor of echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates was a bilaterally symmetrical worm with pharyngeal openings, with these characters lost in echinoderms. Early fossil echinoderms with pharyngeal openings have been described, but their interpretation is highly controversial. Here, we critically evaluate the evidence for pharyngeal structures (gill bars) in the extinct stylophoran echinoderms Lagynocystis pyramidalis and Jaekelocarpus oklahomensis using virtual models based on high-resolution X-ray tomography scans of three-dimensionally preserved fossil specimens. Multivariate analyses of the size, spacing and arrangement of the internal bars in these fossils indicate they are substantially more similar to gill bars in modern enteropneust hemichordates and cephalochordates than to other internal bar-like structures in fossil blastozoan echinoderms. The close similarity between the internal bars of the stylophorans L. pyramidalis and J. oklahomensis and the gill bars of extant chordates and hemichordates is strong evidence for their homology. Differences between these internal bars and bar-like elements of the respiratory systems in blastozoans suggest these structures might have arisen through parallel evolution across deuterostomes, perhaps underpinned by a common developmental genetic mechanism.
    • The life and times of Pteridinium simplex

      Darroch, Simon AF; Gibson, Brandt M; Syversen, Maggie; Rahman, Imran; Racicot, Rachel A; Dunn, Frances S; Gutarra Diaz, Susana V.; Schindler, Eberhard; Wehrmann, Achim; Laflamme, Marc (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-05-17)
      Pteridinium simplex is an iconic erniettomorph taxon best known from late Ediacaran successions in South Australia, Russia, and Namibia. Despite nearly 100 years of study, there remain fundamental questions surrounding the paleobiology and paleoecology of this organism, including its life position relative to the sediment–water interface, and how it fed and functioned within benthic communities. Here, we combine a redescription of specimens housed at the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt with field observations of fossiliferous surfaces, to constrain the life habit of Pteridinium and gain insights into the character of benthic ecosystems shortly before the beginning of the Cambrian. We present paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggesting that Pteridinium was semi-infaunal and lived gregariously in aggregated communities, preferentially adopting an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the prevailing current direction. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that this life habit could plausibly have led to suspended food particles settling within the organism's central cavity. This supports interpretation of Pteridinium as a macroscopic suspension feeder that functioned similarly to the coeval erniettomorph Ernietta, emblematic of a broader paleoecological shift toward benthic suspension-feeding strategies over the course of the latest Ediacaran. Finally, we discuss how this new reconstruction of Pteridinium provides information concerning its potential relationships with extant animal groups and state a case for reconstructing Pteridinium as a colonial metazoan.
    • Review of the genus Dinetus Panzer, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae: Dinetinae) with descriptions of new subgenera and new species

      Olszewski, Piotr; Notton, David Geoffrey; Kitching, I (2020-11-11)
      One new species of Dinetus is described and illustrated: D. hameri Notton sp.n. from the United Arab Emirates; D. politus stat. rev. is raised in rank to a full species (formerly a subspecies of D. cereolus). Two new subgenera are described: Dentidinetus Olszewski, Notton & Kitching subg.n. and Venustidinetus Olszewski, Notton & Kitching subg.n. and all known species are assigned to subgenera. An illustrated key for identification of world Dinetus species is given and a phylogenetic analysis of Dinetus based on morphological characters is presented.
    • What's in a name? Nomenclature for colour aberrations in birds reviewed

      van Grouw, Hein (British Ornithologists' Club, 2021-09-10)
      A review is presented of the seven commonest types of colour aberrations in birds together with suggestions for a standardised universal nomenclature to identify and distinguish these aberrations. These aberrations are: Leucism (congenital absence of melanin-producing cells), Progressive Greying (progressive loss of melanin-producing cells), Albino (total absence of melanin due to lack of the key enzyme), Brown (incompletely coloured melanin), Ino (even less completely coloured melanin), Dilution (altered deposition of melanin) and Melanism (altered distribution of melanin). It is proposed that these terms should be based not only on the resulting plumage but also should distinguish the underlying processes resulting in the aberrant pigmentation. By reviewing previously used terms for colour aberrations, and cross-referencing these with my proposed terminology, errors in earlier names are pointed out, and resulting in a more comprehensive nomenclature for colour aberrations found in wild birds.
    • Clade-wide variation in bite-force 1 performance is determined primarily by 2 size not ecology.

      Isip, Justin E; Jones, Marc EH; Cooper, Natalie (Royal Society, 2022-02-23)
      Performance traits are tightly linked to the fitness of organisms. However, because studies of variation in performance traits generally focus on just one or several closely-related species, we are unable to draw broader conclusions about how and why these traits vary across clades. One important performance trait related to many aspects of an animal’s life history is bite-force. Here we use a clade-wide phylogenetic comparative approach to investigate relationships between size, head dimensions and bite-force among lizards and tuatara (lepidosaurs), using the largest bite-force dataset collated to date for any taxonomic group. We test four predictions: that bite-force will be greater in larger species, and for a given body size, bite-force will be greatest in species with acrodont tooth attachment, herbivorous diets, and non-burrowing habits. We show that bite-force is strongly related to body and head size across lepidosaurs and, as predicted, larger species have the greatest bite-forces. Contrary to our other predictions, tooth attachment, diet and habit have little predictive power when accounting for size. Herbivores bite more forcefully simply because they are larger. Our results also highlight priorities for future sampling to further enhance our understanding of broader evolutionary patterns.
    • Revision of the “ Chloritis delibrata (Benson, 1836)” group (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Camaenidae)

      Páll-Gergely, Barna; Ablett, J; Szabó, Márton; Neubert, Eike (Pensoft Publishers, 2022-02-15)
      Chloritis delibrata (Benson, 1836), known from northeastern India, was believed to have three varietal forms, sometimes mentioned as subspecies: C. delibrata var. khasiensis (Nevill, 1877) and C. delibrata var. fasciata (Godwin-Austen, 1875) from the Khasi Hills, India, and C. delibrata var. procumbens (Gould, 1844) from Dawei in Myanmar. The reproductive anatomy of the latter form is known and does not match with those of any continental camaenid genera, but does with that of the newly examined Chloritis platytropis Möllendorff, 1894 from Thailand. The latter species is conchologically similar to Bouchetcamaena huberi Thach, 2018 (synonym of Helix fouresi Morlet, 1886), which is the type species of the genus Bouchetcamaena Thach, 2018. Thus, Bouchetcamaena can provisionally host the entire Chloritis delibrata -group with the exception of var. fasciata, which is transferred to Burmochloritis Godwin-Austen, 1920 due to the multiple reddish bands on its shell. The examination of shells deposited in the Natural History Museum, London revealed that seven morphologically distinguishable forms are present, which are accepted here as representing distinct species. Four new species are described from India: Bouchetcamaena foveata Páll-Gergely sp. nov., B. fusca Páll-Gergely sp. nov., B. raripila Páll-Gergely sp. nov., and B. subdelibrata Páll-Gergely sp. nov.
    • Cambrian edrioasteroid reveals new mechanism for secondary reduction of the skeleton in echinoderms

      Zamora, Samuel; Rahman, Imran; Sumrall, Colin D; Gibson, Adam P; Thompson, Jeffrey R (The Royal Society, 2022-03-09)
      Echinoderms are characterized by a distinctive high-magnesium calcite endoskeleton as adults, but elements of this have been drastically reduced in some groups. Herein, we describe a new pentaradial echinoderm, Yorkicystis haefneri n. gen. n. sp., which provides, to our knowledge, the oldest evidence of secondary non-mineralization of the echinoderm skeleton. This material was collected from the Cambrian Kinzers Formation in York (Pennsylvania, USA) and is dated as ca 510 Ma. Detailed morphological observations demonstrate that the ambulacra (i.e. axial region) are composed of flooring and cover plates, but the rest of the body (i.e. extraxial region) is preserved as a dark film and lacks any evidence of skeletal plating. Moreover, X-ray fluorescence analysis reveals that the axial region is elevated in iron. Based on our morphological and chemical data and on taphonomic comparisons with other fossils from the Kinzers Formation, we infer that the axial region was originally calcified, while the extraxial region was non-mineralized. Phylogenetic analyses recover Yorkicystis as an edrioasteroid, indicating that this partial absence of skeleton resulted from a secondary reduction. We hypothesize that skeletal reduction resulted from lack of expression of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network in the extraxial body wall during development. Secondary reduction of the skeleton in Yorkicystis might have allowed for greater flexibility of the body wall.
    • Revision of the Tomoderinae (Coleoptera: Anthicidae). Part III. New species and records of Macrotomoderus Pic, 1901 from China and a key to the Palaearctic species

      Telnov, Dmitry (Consortium of European Natural History Museums, 2022-02-24)
      Descriptions of the following 23 species of Macrotomoderus Pic, 1901 new to science, from continental China, are provided as an addition to the recently published review of the genus from China and Taiwan (Telnov 2018): M. angelinii, M. belousovi, M. bicrispus, M. boops, M. bordonii, M. dali, M. daxiangling, M. femoridens, M. hajeki, M. hartmanni, M. hengduan, M. imitator, M. kabaki, M. korolevi, M. lapidarius, M. muli, M. palaung, M. similis, M. tenuis, M. transitans, M. truncatulus, M. usitatus, and M. wudu spp. nov. Additional records are provided for some poorly known species. The identification key to the species of Macrotomoderus from China, the Japanese Archipelago, and Taiwan is herewith significantly supplemented and updated. Biogeographical peculiarities and altitudinal gradient of Macrotomoderus distribution in continental China are briefly discussed.
    • A diversification relay race from Caribbean-Mesoamerica to the Andes: historical biogeography of Xylophanes hawkmoths

      Li, Xuankun; Hamilton, Chris A; St Laurent, Ryan; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Markee, Amanda; HAXAIRE, Jean; ROUGERIE, Rodolphe; Kitching, I; Kawahara, Akito Y (The Royal Society, 2022-02-09)
      The regions of the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica are both hypothesized to be the cradle for many Neotropical lineages, but few studies have fully investigated the dynamics and interactions between Neotropical bioregions. The New World hawkmoth genus Xylophanes is the most taxonomically diverse genus in the Sphingidae, with the highest endemism and richness in the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica. We integrated phylogenomic and DNA barcode data and generated the first time-calibrated tree for this genus, covering 93.8% of the species diversity. We used event-based likelihood ancestral area estimation and biogeographic stochastic mapping to examine the speciation and dispersal dynamics of Xylophanes across bioregions. We also used trait-dependent diversification models to compare speciation and extinction rates of lineages associated with different bioregions. Our results indicate that Xylophanes originated in Caribbean-Mesoamerica in the Late Miocene, and immediately diverged into five major clades. The current species diversity and distribution of Xylophanes can be explained by two consecutive phases. In the first phase, the highest Xylophanes speciation and emigration rates occurred in the Caribbean-Mesoamerica, and the highest immigration rates occurred in the Andes, whereas in the second phase the highest immigration rates were found in Amazonia, and the Andes had the highest speciation and emigration rates.